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Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Indica rice genotypes: an assessment of factors affecting the transformation efficiency


An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated method for transformation of popular Bangladeshi Indica rice genotypes has been developed. Mature embryo-derived calluses as well as immature embryos were used as the target material. Transgenic plant production frequency was higher using the immature embryos than mature embryo-derived calluses. However, 3-week-old mature embryo-derived calluses served as an excellent starting material. The super-binary vector (pTOK233) was generally more effective than the binary vector (pC1301-Xa21mSS) particularly with recalcitrant Bangladeshi genotypes such as BR22. However, transformation of the Japonica cultivar Taipei-309 was equally effective with either plasmid. Inclusion of acetosyringone (200 μM) in co-cultivation media proved essential for successful transformation and the optimum co-cultivation period found was to be 3 days. A large number of morphologically normal, fertile transgenic plants were obtained which expressed gus as determined by histochemical staining. Integration of the hpt gene into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed by molecular analysis. Mendelian inheritance of transgenes (hpt and gus gene) was observed in T<inf>1</inf> progeny.

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2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid




β-glucuronidase (gene product)

hpt :

hygromycin phosphotransferase gene




Murashige and Skoog


α-naphthalene acetic acid


standard errors of means


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Correspondence to Md. Enamul. Hoque.

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Hoque, M.E., Mansfield, J.W. & Bennett, M.H. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Indica rice genotypes: an assessment of factors affecting the transformation efficiency. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 82, 45–55 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-004-6154-3

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  • Agrobacterium
  • Bangladeshi Indica rice
  • Oryza sativa L.
  • transgenic plants