Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Micrografting of ASBVd-infected Avocado (Persea americana) plants

  • 282 Accesses

  • 23 Citations


Shoot tips (meristem plus 2–3 leaf primordia) from in vitro-germinated avocado seedlings of 2 ASBVd-infected cultivars were micrografted in vitro onto decapitated seedlings from 2 ASBVd-free cultivars, and plants were recovered. Shoot tips consisted of two different sizes, i.e., <0.5 mm long and >0.5 mm but <1 mm long. The recovered plants were indexed for ASBVd using RT-PCR. More plants (58.8%) were recovered from scions >0.5 mm than from those that were <0.5 mm (10.3%). RT-PCR demonstrated that ASBVd replicated in all micrografts from infected sources irrespective of the scion size, while no ASBVd was detected in micrografts from plants that tested negative. ASBVd therefore cannot be eliminated by in vitro micrografting.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. C Ainsworth (1995) ArticleTitleIsolation of RNA from floral tissue of Rumex acetosa (Sorrel) Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 12 198–203

  2. M Barba E Regozzino L Navarro (2003) Viroid elimination by thermotherapy and tissue culture H Hadidi R Flores JW Randies JS Semancik (Eds) Viroids Science Publishers Enfield 318–326

  3. M Bar-Joseph D Segev S Twizer A Rosner (1985) ArticleTitleDetection of avocado sunblotch viroid by hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotide probes J. Virol. Meth. 10 69–73

  4. RG Bonfiglioli DR Webb RH Symons (1996) ArticleTitleTissue and intra-cellular distribution of coconut cadang cadang viroid and citrus exocortis viroid determined by in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscopy Plant J. 9 457–465

  5. PR Desjardins RJ Drake SA Swiecki (1980) ArticleTitleInfectivity studies of avocado sunblotch disease causal agent, possibly a viroid rather than a virus Plant Dis. 64 313–315

  6. N Duran-Vila J Juarez JM Arregui (1988) ArticleTitleProduction of viroid-free grapevines by shoot tip culture Amer. J. Ecol. Vitic. 39 217–220

  7. R Flores JW Randles M Bar-Joseph TO Diener (1998) ArticleTitleA proposed scheme for viroid classification and nomenclature Arch. Virol. 143 623–639

  8. M Hollings OM Stone (1970) ArticleTitleAttempts to eliminate chrysanthemum stunt from chrysanthemum by meristem tip culture after heat treatment Ann. Appl. Biol. 121 277–283

  9. WE Howell J Burgess GI Mink LJ Skrzeczkowsky YP Zhang (1998) ArticleTitleElimination of apple fruit and bark deforming agents by heat therapy Acta. Hortic. 472 641–646

  10. T Momma T Takahashi (1983) ArticleTitleCytopathology of shoot apical meristem of hop plants infected with hop stunt viroid Phytopathology 106 272–289

  11. EE Monteverde ML Garcia M Briceño (1987) ArticleTitleObtencion de plantas citricas libres de psorosis y exocortis en arboles infectados a traves de la microinjertacion de apices in vitro Agron. Trop 36 5–14

  12. T Murashige F Skoog (1962) ArticleTitleA revised medium for rapid growth of and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures Physiol. Plant 15 473–497

  13. T Murashige WP Bitters TS Rangan E Nauer CN Roistacher PB Holliday (1972) ArticleTitleA technique of shoot apex grafting and its utilization toward recovering of virus-free citrus clones HortScience 7 118–119

  14. L Navarro CN Roistacher T Murashige (1975) ArticleTitleImprovement of shoot-tip grafting in vitro for virus-free citrus J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 100 471–479

  15. CT Olano RJ Schnell DN Kuhn (2002) ArticleTitleCurrent status of ASBVd infection among avocado accessions in the national germplasm collection Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 115 280–282

  16. P Palukaitis T Hatta D Alexander R Symons (1979) ArticleTitleCharacterization of a viroid associated with avocado sunblotch disease Virology 99 145–151

  17. F Pliego-Alfaro T Murashige (1987) ArticleTitlePossible rejuvenation of adult avocado by graftage onto juvenile rootstock in vitro HortScience 22 1321–1324

  18. JD Postman A Hadidi (1995) ArticleTitleElimination of apple scar skin viroid from pears by in vitro thermo-therapy and apical meristem culture Acta Hortic. 386 536–543

  19. T Sano A Nagayama T Ogawa I Ishida Y Okada (1997) ArticleTitleTransgenic potato expressing a double-stranded RNA-specific ribonuclease is resistant to potato spindle tuber viroid Biotechnology 15 1290–1294

  20. RJ Schnell DN Kuhn CM Ronning D Harkin (1997) ArticleTitleApplication of RT-PCR for indexing avocado sunblotch viroid Plant Dis. 81 1023–1026

  21. RJ Schnell CT Olano DN Kuhn (2001) ArticleTitleDetection of avocado sunblotch viroid variants using fluorescent single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis Electrophoresis 22 427–432

  22. JS Semancik JA Szychowsky (1994) ArticleTitleAvocado sunblotch: a persistent viroid infection in which variants are associated with differential symptoms J. Gen. Virol. 75 1543–1549

  23. JS Semancik LG Weathers (1970) ArticleTitleProperties of the infectious forms of citrus exocortis virus of citrus Phytopathology 60 732–736

  24. RP Bagnall Singh (1968) ArticleTitleInfectious nucleic acid from host tissues infected with potato spindle tuber virus Phytopathology 67 933–935

  25. Chow Wah YF Wan RH Symons (1997) ArticleTitleA high sensitivity RT-PCR assay for the diagnosis of grapevine viroids in field and tissue culture samples J. Virol. Meth. 63 57–69

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Richard E. Litz.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Suarez, I.E., Schnell, R.A., Kuhn, D.N. et al. Micrografting of ASBVd-infected Avocado (Persea americana) plants. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 80, 179–185 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-004-1622-3

Download citation


  • Avsunviroidae
  • capillary electrophoresis
  • meristem
  • RT-PCR
  • viroid