Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 73–79 | Cite as

Carbon monoxide inhibits the anticoagulant activity of phospholipase A2 purified from Crotalus adamanteus venom

  • Vance G. NielsenEmail author


Snake venom contains a myriad of classes of enzyme which have been investigated for medicinal and toxinological purposes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which is responsible for anticoagulant, myotoxic and neurotoxic effects. Given the importance of PLA2, the purposes of the present investigation were to characterize the coagulation kinetic behavior of a PLA2 purified from Crotalus adamanteus venom (Ca-PLA2) in human plasma with thrombelastography and determine if carbon monoxide could inhibit its activity. Coagulation kinetics were determined in human plasma with a range of Ca-PLA2 activity (0–2 U/ml) via thrombelastography. Then, using carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 or its inactivated molecule (0 or 100 µM), the vulnerability of Ca-PLA2 activity to carbon monoxide mediated inhibition was assessed. Lastly, the inhibitory response of Ca-PLA2 activity to exposure to carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (0–100 µM) was determined. Ca-PLA2 activity degraded the velocity of clot growth and clot strength in an activity dependent, exponential manner. Carbon monoxide inhibited Ca-PLA2 activity in a concentration dependent fashion, with loss of detectable activity at 100 µM of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2. These findings, while preliminary, open the possibility that other PLA2 contained in snake venom with multiple toxicities (e.g., myotoxin, neurotoxin) may be heme bearing and CO-inhibitable, which have profound potential basic and clinical science implications.


Carbon monoxide Phospholipase A2 Thrombelastography Anticoagulation 



This investigation was supported by the Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, at the University of Arizona.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This was an in vitro investigation and did not involve any living subjects.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyThe University of Arizona College of MedicineTucsonUSA

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