Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Medicinal plants with antithrombotic property in Persian medicine: a mechanistic review


Thrombosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of vessels diseases. Due to the high prevalence of thromboembolic disorders investigations are being carried out on new antithrombotic agents with limited adverse side effects in which herbal medicines are considered as alternative remedies. Persian medicine (PM) as a traditional medicine has a good potential for pharmacotherapy based on its own principles and development of drugs via investigating PM literature. In PM manuscripts there are some concepts that express the management of blood clots and antithrombotic properties. This study reviewed the pharmacological effects of medicinal plants mentioned in PM literature for blood clot management in light of current knowledge. Plants mentioned in PM for management of blood clot belong to 12 families in which Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Compositae were the most repeated ones. Among the proposed plants Allium sativum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Boswellia serrata, Sesamum indicum, Matricaria chamomilla and Carthamus tinctorius have been the most researched plants in modern antithrombotic studies while for some plants such as Helichrysum stoechas, Dracocephalum kotschi, Carum carvi, Bunium persicum and Lagoecia cuminoides no evidence could be found. One of the interesting notes in clot management in PM texts was introducing the target organ for some of the recommended herbs like Carum carvi and Bunium persicum for dissolving blood clot in stomach and Commiphora mukul for thrombosed hemorrhoid. It seems review of PM recommendations can help to design future researches for antithrombotic drugs discovering with more effectiveness and safety.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Kitchens CS, Konkle BA, Kessler CM (2013) Consultative hemostasis and thrombosis. Elsevier, New York

  2. 2.

    Rosendaal FR, Raskob GE (2014) On world thrombosis day. Lancet 384(9955):1653–1654

  3. 3.

    Raskob GE, Angchaisuksiri P, Blanco AN, Büller H, Gallus A, Hunt BJ et al (2014) (eds) Thrombosis: a major contributor to global disease burden. Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. Thieme Medical Publishers, Stuttgart

  4. 4.

    Tognolini M, Barocelli E, Ballabeni V, Bruni R, Bianchi A, Chiavarini M et al (2006) Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity. Life Sci 78(13):1419–1432

  5. 5.

    Saluk-Juszczak J, Pawlaczyk I, Olas B, Kołodziejczyk J, Ponczek M, Nowak P et al (2010) The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins. Int J Biol Macromol 47(5):700–705

  6. 6.

    Mekhfi H, El Haouari M, Legssyer A, Bnouham M, Aziz M, Atmani F et al (2004) Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 94(2):317–322

  7. 7.

    Kwon E-K, Kim Y-E, Lee C-H, Kim H-Y (2006) Screening of nine herbs with biological activities on ACE inhibition, HMG-CoA reductase inhibition, and fibrinolysis. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38:691–698

  8. 8.

    Kontogiorgis C, Nicolotti O, Mangiatordi GF, Tognolini M, Karalaki F, Giorgio C et al (2015) Studies on the antiplatelet and antithrombotic profile of anti-inflammatory coumarin derivatives. J Enzyme Inhibition Med Chem 30(6):925–933

  9. 9.

    Lee W, Lee J, Kulkarni R, Kim M-A, Hwang JS, Na M et al (2016) Antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of small-molecule alkaloids from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. Sci Rep 6:21956

  10. 10.

    Seo EJ, Ngoc TM, Lee S-M, Kim YS, Jung Y-S (2012) Chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside, an anthraquinone derivative in rhubarb, has antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities. J Pharmacol Sci 118(2):245–254

  11. 11.

    Yoo H, Ku S-K, Lee W, Kwak S, Baek Y-D, Min B-W et al (2014) Antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and profibrinolytic activities of cudratricusxanthone A. Arch Pharm Res 37(8):1069–1078

  12. 12.

    Giordanetto F, Wållberg A, Ghosal S, Iliefski T, Cassel J, Yuan Z-Q et al (2012) Discovery of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) p110β isoform inhibitor 4-[2-hydroxyethyl (1-naphthylmethyl) amino]-6-[(2S)-2-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-1H-pyrimidin-2-one, an effective antithrombotic agent without associated bleeding and insulin resistance. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 22(21):6671–6676

  13. 13.

    Yang N-Y, Tao W-W, Duan J-A (2010) Antithrombotic flavonoids from the faeces of Trogopterus xanthipes. Nat Prod Res 24(19):1843–1849

  14. 14.

    Messina F, Guglielmini G, Curini M, Orsini S, Gresele P, Marcotullio MC (2015) Effect of substituted stilbenes on platelet function. Fitoterapia 105:228–233

  15. 15.

    Moeini R, Memariani Z, Pasalar P, Gorji N (2017) Historical root of precision medicine: an ancient concept concordant with the modern pharmacotherapy. DARU J Pharm Sci 25(1):7

  16. 16.

    Moeini R, Gorji N, Ghods R, Mozaffarpur S (2017) Quantitative and qualitative assessment of persian medicine articles indexed in pubmed by the end of 2015. JBUMS 19(1):21–26

  17. 17.

    Aghili Shirazi SMH (1992) Makhzan-ol-Advieh [Storehouse of medicaments].  Intisharat va Amoozesh Enghelab Islami Press, Tehran

  18. 18.

    Avicenna (2010) Qanoon fi al Tib [Canon of Medicine]. Ehyaol Toras al-Arabi Press, Beirut

  19. 19.

    Jorjani S-H (2010) Zakhire Kharazmshahi [Treasure of Kharazm]. Moaseseh Ehyae Tebe Tabiei, Qom

  20. 20.

    Razes AH (2001) Al Havi [Liber continent]. Ehyaol Toras al-Arabi, Beiruot

  21. 21.

    Arzani M (2008) Teb-e-Akbari [Akbari’s medicine]. Ehya Teb e Tabiee, Tehran

  22. 22.

    Bordia A, Arora S, Kothari L, Jain K, Rathore B, Rathore A et al (1975) The protective action of essential oils of onion and garlic in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 22(1):103–109

  23. 23.

    Ali M, Mohammed SY (1986) Selective suppression of platelet thromboxane formation with sparing of vascular prostacyclin synthesis by aqueous extract of garlic in rabbits. Prostaglandin Leukotr Med 25(2):139–146

  24. 24.

    El-Sabban F, Fahim M, Radwan G, Zaghloul S, Singh S (1996) Garlic preserves patency and delays hyperthermia-induced thrombosis in pial microcirculation. Int J Hyperth 12(4):513–525

  25. 25.

    Ali M (1995) Mechanism by which garlic (Allium sativum) inhibits cyclooxygenase activity. Effect of raw versus boiled garlic extract on the synthesis of prostanoids. Prostaglandin Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids 53(6):397–400

  26. 26.

    Setorki M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Merikhi A, Heidarian E, Shahinfard N, Ansari R et al (2013) Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Int J Prevent Med 4(8)

  27. 27.

    Olajide OA (1999) Investigation of the effects of selected medicinal plants on experimental thrombosis. Phytother Res 13(3):231–232

  28. 28.

    Tawfik MK (2016) Anti-aggregatory effect of boswellic acid in high-fat fed rats: involvement of redox and inflammatory cascades. Arch Med Sci 12(6):1354

  29. 29.

    Pan Y-N, Liang X-X, Niu L-Y, Wang Y-N, Tong X, Hua H-M et al (2015) Comparative studies of pharmacokinetics and anticoagulatory effect in rats after oral administration of Frankincense and its processed products. J Ethnopharmacol 172:118–123

  30. 30.

    Ding T-b, Jian L-g, Zhao J-t, Liu S-c, Zhang J-y, Wu SH (2015) Ethanol extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. shows anti-thrombosis activity in rats. Afr J Tradl Complement Altern Med (AJTCAM) 12(3):120–124

  31. 31.

    Li H-X, Han S-Y, Wang X-W, Ma X, Zhang K, Wang L et al (2009) Effect of the carthamins yellow from Carthamus tinctorius L. on hemorheological disorders of blood stasis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 47(8):1797–1802

  32. 32.

    Wu SH, Zheng CP, Chen SY, Cai XP, Shi YJ, Liu Z et al (2014) Anti-thrombotic effect of Carthamus tinctorius linn extracts in rats. Trop J Pharm Res 13(10):1637–1640

  33. 33.

    Gebhard C, Stämpfli SF, Gebhard CE, Akhmedov A, Breitenstein A, Camici GG et al (2009) Guggulsterone, an anti-inflammatory phytosterol, inhibits tissue factor and arterial thrombosis. Basic Res Cardiol 104(3):285–294

  34. 34.

    Yamamoto J, Naemura A, Ijiri Y, Ogawa K, Suzuki T, Shimada Y et al (2008) The antithrombotic effects of carrot filtrates in rats and mice. Blood Coagul Fibrinol 19(8):785–792

  35. 35.

    Potey L, Kannao S, Kosalge S (2015) Evaluation of coagulant and anti coagulant activity of some spices. Am J Pharm Res 5(01)

  36. 36.

    Zhang L, Du JR, Wang J, Yu DK, Chen YS, He Y et al (2009) Z-ligustilide extracted from Radix Angelica Sinensis decreased platelet aggregation induced by ADP ex vivo and arterio-venous shunt thrombosis in vivo in rats. J Pharm Soc Japn 129(7):855–859

  37. 37.

    Zhong J, Pollastro F, Prenen J, Zhu Z, Appendino G, Nilius B (2011) Ligustilide: a novel TRPA1 modulator. Eur J Physiol 462(6):841–849

  38. 38.

    Choi JH, Kim YS, Shin CH, Lee HJ, Kim S (2015) Antithrombotic activities of luteolin in vitro and in vivo. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 29(12):552–558

  39. 39.

    Makino T, Ono T, Liu N, Nakamura T, Muso E, Honda G (2002) Suppressive effects of rosmarinic acid on mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in rats. Nephron 92(4):898–904

  40. 40.

    Naemura A, Ura M, Yamashita T, Arai R, Yamamoto J (2008) Long-term intake of rosemary and common thyme herbs inhibits experimental thrombosis without prolongation of bleeding time. Thromb Res 122(4):517–522

  41. 41.

    Yamamoto J, Yamada K, Naemura A, Yamashita T, Arai R (2005) Testing various herbs for antithrombotic effect. Nutrition 21(5):580–587

  42. 42.

    Kinugasa C, Naemura A, Hyodo K, Nakai Y, Katsuta M, Yamamoto J (2011) Experimental antithrombotic effects of sesame seed whole grains and extracts. Blood Coagul Fibrinol 22(6):526–531

  43. 43.

    Rajput MA, Khan RA, Qazi N, Feroz Z (2012) Effect of methanol extract of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) on blood coagulation in rats. J Liaquat Univ Med Health Sci 11(2):105–108

  44. 44.

    Ansari F, Naderi G, Sadegh Sabet M, Karimi A (2012) Study of garlic effect on fibrinolytic activity of the blood clot in vitro. Iran J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2(1)

  45. 45.

    Gaffen J, Tavares I, Bennett A (1984) The effect of garlic extracts on contractions of rat gastric fundus and human platelet aggregation. J Pharm Pharmacol 36(4):272–274

  46. 46.

    Ali M, Bordia T, Mustafa T (1999) Effect of raw versus boiled aqueous extract of garlic and onion on platelet aggregation. Prostaglandin Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids (PLEFA) 60(1):43–47

  47. 47.

    Rahman K, Lowe GM (2006) Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review. J Nutr 136(3):736S-40S

  48. 48.

    Mohammad SF, Woodward SC (1986) Characterization of a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation and release reaction isolated from Allium sativum (garlic). Thromb Res 44(6):793–806

  49. 49.

    Konić-Ristić A, Srdić-Rajić T, Kardum N, Aleksić-Veličković V, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ et al (2013) Effects of bioactive-rich extracts of pomegranate, persimmon, nettle, dill, kale and Sideritis and isolated bioactives on arachidonic acid induced markers of platelet activation and aggregation. J Sci Food Agric 93(14):3581–3587

  50. 50.

    Sowbhagya H (2014) Chemistry, technology, and nutraceutical functions of celery (Apium graveolens L.): an overview. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54(3):389–398

  51. 51.

    Khan IN, Habib MR, Rahman MM, Mannan A, Sarker MMI, Hawlader S (2011) Thrombolytic potential of Ocimum sanctum L., Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica L. and Anacardium occidentale L. J Basic Clin Pharm 2(3):125–127

  52. 52.

    Kokkiripati PK, Bhakshu LM, Marri S, Padmasree K, Row AT, Raghavendra AS et al (2011) Gum resin of Boswellia serrata inhibited human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation and platelet aggregation. J Ethnopharmacol 137(1):893–901

  53. 53.

    Wang M, Chen M, Ding Y, Zhu Z, Zhang Y, Wei P et al (2015) Pretreatment with β-boswellic acid improves blood stasis induced endothelial dysfunction: role of eNOS activation. Sci Rep 5

  54. 54.

    Ruan J, Yan L, Zhang L, Tao L, Wang A-y, Chen W et al (2012) Comparative effects of Hirudo, Frankincense and Motherwort on the inhibition of blood platelet aggregation and P-selectin secretion. J Med Plants Res 6(13):2614–2621

  55. 55.

    Levy J, Xie Z-f (1988) Effect of three Chinese herbal medicines (Ligustrazine, Chrysanthemum indicum, Salviae miltiorrhizae) on PAF and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Prostaglandins 35(5):842

  56. 56.

    Zia-Ul-Haq M, Khan BA, Landa P, Kutil Z, Ahmed S, Qayum M et al (2011) Platelet aggregation and anti-inflammatory effects of garden pea, Desi chickpea and Kabuli chickpea. Acta Pol Pharm 69(4):707–711

  57. 57.

    Marzouk B, Haloui E, Akremi N, Aouni M, Marzouk Z, Fenina N (2012) Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. leaves from Tunisia (Medenine). Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 6(26):1982–1988

  58. 58.

    Jantan I, Rafi I, Jalil J (2005) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. Phytomedicine 12(1):88–92

  59. 59.

    Zhang L, Jun-Rong D, Jin W, Dong-Ke Y, Ya-Shu C, Yao H et al (2009) Z-ligustilide extracted from Radix Angelica Sinensis decreased platelet aggregation induced by ADP ex vivo and arterio-venous shunt thrombosis in vivo in rats. Yakugaku Zasshi 129(7):855–859

  60. 60.

    Pierre S, Crosbie L, Duttaroy AK (2005) Inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of some herbs on human platelet aggregation in vitro. Platelets 16(8):469–473

  61. 61.

    Bijak M, Saluk J, Tsirigotis-Maniecka M, Komorowska H, Wachowicz B, Zaczyńska E et al (2013) The influence of conjugates isolated from Matricaria chamomilla L. on platelets activity and cytotoxicity. Int J Biol Macromol 61:218–229

  62. 62.

    Chistokhodova N, Nguyen C, Calvino T, Kachirskaia I, Cunningham G, Miles DH (2002) Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants from central Florida. J Ethnopharmacol 81(2):277–280

  63. 63.

    Yazdanparast R, Shahriyary L (2008) Comparative effects of Artemisia dracunculus, Satureja hortensis and Origanum majorana on inhibition of blood platelet adhesion, aggregation and secretion. Vasc Pharmacol 48(1):32–37

  64. 64.

    Goun E, Cunningham G, Solodnikov S, Krasnykch O, Miles H (2002) Antithrombin activity of some constituents from Origanum vulgare. Fitoterapia 73(7):692–694

  65. 65.

    Lee Y-S, Kwon K-J, Kim M-S, Sohn H-Y (2013) Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticoagulation activities of Korean radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves. Microbiol Biotechnol Lett 41(2):228–235

  66. 66.

    Lee J-J, Jin Y-R, Lee J-H, Yu J-Y, Han X-H, Oh K-W et al (2007) Antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene from Rosmarinus officinalis. Plant Med 73(02):121–127

  67. 67.

    Jafar S (2008) In vitro thrmobolyitc/fibrinolyitc effects of Rue aqueous distilled extract. J Al-Nahrain Univ 11:28–33

  68. 68.

    Wu TS, Shi LS, Wang JJ, Iou SC, Chang HC, Chen YP et al (2003) Cytotoxic and antiplatelet aggregation principles of Ruta graveolens. J Chin Chem Soc 50(1):171–178

  69. 69.

    Khaleel AE-S, Gonaid MH, El-Bagry RI (2007) Chemical and biological study of the residual aerial parts of Sesamum indicum L. J Food Drug Anal 15(3)

  70. 70.

    Thushara R, Hemshekhar M, Sunitha K, Kumar M, Naveen S, Kemparaju K et al (2013) Sesamol induces apoptosis in human platelets via reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial damage. Biochimie 95(11):2060–2068

  71. 71.

    Chang C-C, Lu W-J, Ong E-T, Chiang C-W, Lin S-C, Huang S-Y et al (2011) A novel role of sesamol in inhibiting NF-κB-mediated signaling in platelet activation. J Biomed Sci 18(1):93

  72. 72.

    Liu B-L, Chiang P-S (2008) Production of hydrolysate with antioxidative activity and functional properties by enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Int J Appl Sci Eng 6(2):73–83

  73. 73.

    Chang CC, Lu WJ, Chiang CW, Jayakumar T, Ong ET, Hsiao G et al (2010) Potent antiplatelet activity of sesamol in an in vitro and in vivo model: pivotal roles of cyclic AMP and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Nutr Biochem 21(12):1214–1221

  74. 74.

    Chen P-R, Lee C-C, Chang H, Tsai CE (2005) Sesamol regulates plasminogen activator gene expression in cultured endothelial cells: a potential effect on the fibrinolytic system. J Nutr Biochem 16(1):59–64

  75. 75.

    Losche W, Mazurov A, Heptinstall S, Groenewegen W, Repin V, Till U (1987) An extract of feverfew inhibits interactions of human platelets with collagen substrates. Thromb Res 48(5):511–518

  76. 76.

    Groenewegen W, Heptinstall S (1990) A comparison of the effects of an extract of feverfew and parthenolide, a component of feverfew, on human platelet activity in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol 42(8):553–557

  77. 77.

    Srivastava K (1988) Extract of a spice—Omum (Trachyspermum ammi)-shows antiaggregatory effects and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 33(1):1–6

  78. 78.

    Karkabounas S, Kostoula O, Daskalou T, Veltsistas P, Karamouzis M, Zelovitis I et al (2006) Anticarcinogenic and antiplatelet effects of carvacrol. Exp Oncol 28(2):121–125

  79. 79.

    Okazaki K, Kawazoe K, Takaishi Y (2002) Human platelet aggregation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Phytother Res 16(4):398–399

  80. 80.

    Fakhar H, Tayer AH (2012) Effect of the garlic pill in comparison with plavix on platelet aggregation and bleeding time. Iran J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2(4):146

  81. 81.

    Ali M, Thomson M (1995) Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis. Prostaglandins Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids 53(3):211–212

  82. 82.

    Wojcikowski K, Myers S, Brooks L (2007) Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation: a double blind placebo controlled crossover study. Platelets 18(1):29–34

  83. 83.

    Steiner M, Li W (2001) Aged garlic extract, a modulator of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the effects of AGE on platelet functions. J Nutr 131(3):980S–984S

  84. 84.

    Rahman K, Billington D (2000) Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation in humans. J Nutr 130(11):2662–2665

  85. 85.

    Bordia A, Verma S, Srivastava K (1998) Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on blood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids 58(4):257–263

  86. 86.

    Steiner M, Lin R (1998) Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 31(6):904–908

  87. 87.

    Legnani C, Frascaro M, Guazzaloca G, Ludovici S, Cesarano G, Coccheri S (1993) Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung 43(2):119–122

  88. 88.

    Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung E, Mrowietz C, Koscielny J, Wenzel E (1993) Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in patients with increased risk of juvenile ischaemic attack. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 45(4):333–336

  89. 89.

    Mansouri M, Nayebi N, Hasani-Ranjbar S, Taheri E, Larijani B (2012) The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill) on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial. DARU J Pharm Sci 20(1):47

  90. 90.

    Paoletti A, Gallo E, Benemei S, Vietri M, Lapi F, Volpi R et al (2011) Interactions between natural health products and oral anticoagulants: spontaneous reports in the Italian Surveillance System of Natural Health Products. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med

  91. 91.

    Segal R, Pilote L (2006) Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla. Can Med Assoc J 174(9):1281–1282

  92. 92.

    Mikaili P, Maadirad S, Moloudizargari M, Aghajanshakeri S, Sarahroodi S (2013) Therapeutic uses and pharmacological properties of garlic, shallot, and their biologically active compounds. Iran J Basic Med Sci 16(10):1031–1048

  93. 93.

    Khatua TN, Adela R, Banerjee SK (2013) Garlic and cardioprotection: insights into the molecular mechanisms. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 91(6):448–458

  94. 94.

    Chen P-R, Tsai CE, Chang H, Liu T-L, Lee C-C (2005) Sesamol induces nitric oxide release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Lipids 40(9):955–961

  95. 95.

    Zhou X, Tang L, Xu Y, Zhou G, Wang Z (2014) Towards a better understanding of medicinal uses of Carthamus tinctorius L. in traditional Chinese medicine: a phytochemical and pharmacological review. J Ethnopharmacol 151(1):27–43

  96. 96.

    Chen W, Jin M, Wu W, Li J, Yang S (1999) Inhibition of safflor yellow on rabbit platelet activation induced by platelet activating factor. Zhongguo yao xue za zhi (Zhongguo yao xue hui: 1989) 35(11):741–744

  97. 97.

    Jin M, Wu W, Chen WM (2001) Inhibition of safflor yellow against the binding of platelet activating factor to its receptor in vitro. Chin Pharm J 36(3):167–169

  98. 98.

    Zang B, Jin M, Si N, Zhang Y, Wu W, Piao Y (2002) Antagonistic effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A on the platelet activating factor receptor. Acta Pharm Sin 37(9):696–699

  99. 99.

    Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD (2005) Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci 78(5):431–441

  100. 100.

    Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR (2001) The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environm Health Perspect 109(Suppl 1):69

  101. 101.

    Chaudhari K, Hamad B, Syed BA (2014) Antithrombotic drugs market. Nat Rev Drug Discov 13(8):571–572

  102. 102.

    Deitelzweig S, Amin A, Jing Y, Makenbaeva D, Wiederkehr D, Lin J et al (2012) Medical cost reductions associated with the usage of novel oral anticoagulants vs warfarin among atrial fibrillation patients, based on the RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE trials. J Med Econ 15(4):776–785

  103. 103.

    Patwardhan B, Mashelkar RA (2009) Traditional medicine-inspired approaches to drug discovery: can Ayurveda show the way forward? Drug Discov Today 14(15):804–811

  104. 104.

    Gurib-Fakim A (2006) Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Mol Aspect Med 27(1):1–93

  105. 105.

    De Caterina R, Husted S, Wallentin L, Andreotti F, Arnesen H, Bachmann F et al (2013) General mechanisms of coagulation and targets of anticoagulants (Section I). Thromb Haemost 109(2013):569–579

  106. 106.

    Mosa RA (2014) Some bioactivity of triterpenes from stem bark of Protorhus longifolia. University of Zululand, and their derivatives

  107. 107.

    Kooti W, Ali-Akbari S, Asadi-Samani M, Ghadery H, Ashtary-Larky D (2015) A review on medicinal plant of Apium graveolens. Adv Herb Med 1(1):48–59

  108. 108.

    Shukla S, Gupta S (2010) Apigenin: a promising molecule for cancer prevention. Pharma Res 27(6):962–978

  109. 109.

    Zhang XY, Qiao H, Shi YB (2014) HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of ligustilide in rat plasma and its pharmacokinetics. Pharma Biol 52(1):21–30

  110. 110.

    Iranshahy M, Iranshahi M (2011) Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin): a review. J Ethnopharmacol 134(1):1–10

  111. 111.

    Navarro-Núñez L, Lozano M, Palomo M, Martinez C, Vicente V, Castillo J et al (2008) Apigenin inhibits platelet adhesion and thrombus formation and synergizes with aspirin in the suppression of the arachidonic acid pathway. J Agric Food Chem 56(9):2970–2976

  112. 112.

    Fukuda K, Murata K, TANIGUCHI M, SHIBANO M, SHIRATORI M, Tadato T et al (2009) Fibrinolytic activity of ligustilide and pharmaceutical comparison of Angelica acutiloba roots before and after processing in hot water. J Tradit Med 26(5+6):210–218

  113. 113.

    Liu L, Ma H, Yang N, Tang Y, Guo J, Tao W et al (2010) A series of natural flavonoids as thrombin inhibitors: structure-activity relationships. Thromb Res 126(5):e365–e378

  114. 114.

    Siemoneit U, Tausch L, Poeckel D, Paul M, Northoff H, Koeberle A et al (2017) Defined structure-activity relationships of boswellic acids determine modulation of Ca2+ mobilization and aggregation of human platelets by Boswellia serrata extracts. Planta Med 83(12–13):1020–1027

  115. 115.

    Aksu K, Donmez A, Keser G (2012) Inflammation-induced thrombosis: mechanisms, disease associations and management. Curr Pharm Design 18(11):1478–1493

  116. 116.

    Badimon L, Vilahur G (2014) Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque rupture. J Intern Med 276(6):618–632

  117. 117.

    Santhakumar AB, Bulmer AC, Singh I (2014) A review of the mechanisms and effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in reducing oxidative stress and thrombotic risk. J Hum Nutr Diet 27(1):1–21

  118. 118.

    Asgarpanah J, Kazemivash N (2013) Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Carthamus tinctorius L. Chin J Integr Med 19(2):153–159

  119. 119.

    Ying Z, Kherada N, Kampfrath T, Mihai G, Simonetti O, Desikan R et al (2011) A modified sesamol derivative inhibits progression of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31(3):536–542

  120. 120.

    Khan SS, Najam R, Anser H, Riaz B, Alam N (2014) Chamomile tea: herbal hypoglycemic alternative for conventional medicine. Pak J Pharm Sci 27(5):1509–1514

  121. 121.

    Singh O, Khanam Z, Misra N, Srivastava MK (2011) Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): an overview. Pharmacogn Rev 5(9):82

  122. 122.

    Choi S, Oh D-S, Jerng UM (2017) A systematic review of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of herbal medicine with warfarin. PLoS ONE 12(8):e0182794

  123. 123.

    Izzo AA, Hoon-Kim S, Radhakrishnan R, Williamson EM (2016) A critical approach to evaluating clinical efficacy, adverse events and drug interactions of herbal remedies. Phytother Res 30(5):691–700

  124. 124.

    Bijak M, Saluk J, Tsirigotis-Maniecka M, Komorowska H, Wachowicz B, Zaczynska E et al (2013) The influence of conjugates isolated from Matricaria chamomilla L. on platelets activity and cytotoxicity. Int J Biol Macromol 61:218–229

  125. 125.

    Habib G (2014) Essential oils and drugs: interactions: uniwien.

  126. 126.

    Di Minno A, Frigerio B, Spadarella G, Ravani A, Sansaro D, Amato M et al (2017) Old and new oral anticoagulants: food, herbal medicines and drug interactions. Blood Rev 31(4):193–203

  127. 127.

    Chua YT, Ang XL, Zhong XM, Khoo KS (2015) Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines. Singap Med J 56(1):11–18

  128. 128.

    Segal R, Pilote L (2006) Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla. CMAJ 174(9):1281–1282

  129. 129.

    Chua YT, Ang XL, Zhong XM, Khoo KS (2015) Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines. Singap Med J 56(1):11

  130. 130.

    Mouly S, Lloret-Linares C, Sellier PO, Sene D, Bergmann JF (2017) Is the clinical relevance of drug-food and drug-herb interactions limited to grapefruit juice and Saint-John’s Wort? Pharmacol Res 118:82–92

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Narjes Gorji.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest to disclose.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Memariani, Z., Moeini, R., Hamedi, S.S. et al. Medicinal plants with antithrombotic property in Persian medicine: a mechanistic review. J Thromb Thrombolysis 45, 158–179 (2018).

Download citation


  • Herbal medicine
  • Persian medicine
  • Thrombosis
  • Thrombolytic
  • Antithrombotic