Venous thromboembolism in the US: does race matter?
- 228 Downloads
Studies investigating racial differences in the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have generally been conducted on a limited scale. This analysis measured VTE prevalence across racial groups in a population of US Medicaid enrollees from 2002 to 2005. Records for patients aged ≥18 years with VTE between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005 were retrieved from the MarketScan® Multi-State Medicaid Database from Thomson Reuters. Patients were classified as having VTE in each calendar year by the presence of a VTE diagnosis on an inpatient claim or ≥1 outpatient claim with VTE diagnosis plus evidence of anticoagulant use. Patients dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare were excluded. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of VTE. An average of 4.5 million Medicaid enrollees were study eligible in each calendar year, 72.2% of which had deep-vein thrombosis, 22.5% pulmonary embolism, and 5.3% had both. Patients were mainly Caucasian (46.8%), African-American (26.0%), and Hispanic (14.1%). VTE prevalence per 100,000 enrollees was highest in African-American males (584 in 2002–784 in 2005), followed by Caucasian males (457–643), Caucasian females (335–446), and African-American females (348–444). Hispanic males (94–149) and females (93–154) had lower prevalence of VTE. African-Americans had a significantly higher probability of having a VTE event than Caucasians (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.07, P = 0.036). VTE prevalence increased over the study period and was highest in African-American males. More coordinated efforts are required to improve VTE awareness and prevention across all racial and ethnic groups.
KeywordsVenous thromboembolism Race/ethnicity Prevalence Gender
The authors would like to thank Helen Varker for her programming and analysis, and Bevan Kirley for her editorial contribution to this study. This study was funded by Sanofi-Aventis, US Inc. The authors received editorial and writing support in the preparation of this manuscript, funded by Sanofi-Aventis US, Inc. The lead author, however, was fully responsible for all content and editorial decisions, and received no financial support or other form of compensation related to the development of the paper.
- 4.Heit JA, Petterson TM, Farmer SA et al. (2006) Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a 35-year population-based study. Blood 108 (abstract 1488)Google Scholar
- 14.US Census Bureau (2000) Projections of the resident population by race, Hispanic origin, and nativity: middle series, 2050–2070. Population projections program, population division, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC. http://www.census.gov/population/projections/nation/summary/np-t5-g.pdf. Accessed 16 April 2010
- 15.McKinnon J (2002) The black population in the United States: March 2002. US Census Bureau, current population reports, series P20-541. Washington, DC. http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-541.pdf. Accessed 16 April 2010
- 16.Ramirez RR, de la Cruz GP (2002) The Hispanic population in the United States: March 2002. US Census Bureau, current population reports, series P20-545. Washington, DC. http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-545.pdf. Accessed 16 April 2010