Probabilities of electoral outcomes: from three-candidate to four-candidate elections

  • Abdelhalim El Ouafdi
  • Dominique LepelleyEmail author
  • Hatem Smaoui


The main purpose of this paper is to compute the theoretical likelihood of some electoral outcomes under the impartial anonymous culture in four-candidate elections by using the last versions of software like LattE or Normaliz. By comparison with the three-candidate case, our results allow to analyze the impact of the number of candidates on the occurrence of these voting outcomes.


Voting rules Voting paradoxes Condorcet efficiency Condorcet loser Manipulability 



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CEMOI, University of La RéunionSainte-ClotildeRéunion

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