Telecommunication Systems

, Volume 72, Issue 4, pp 505–516 | Cite as

Uplink coverage probability and spectral efficiency for downlink uplink decoupled dense heterogeneous cellular network using multi-slope path loss model

  • Sundus AliEmail author
  • Muhammad Imran Aslam
  • Irfan Ahmed


Low powered node densification leading to dense and ultra dense heterogeneous networks is a feature of 5th generation cellular networks. With this densification, the nature of the link between the transmitter and receiver in the network requires even more accurate and reliable models. For performance analysis of such networks where the rates of signal loss over distance becomes a significant parameter, more accurate path loss models should be used when analyzing user equipment (UE) association probability, coverage probability and average spectral efficiency. In this paper, we have considered a two-tier dense heterogeneous cellular network incorporating downlink uplink decoupled technique and have derived generalized expressions for UE association probability, decoupled uplink coverage probability and decoupled uplink average spectral efficiency using multi-slope path loss model. This path loss model broadly incorporates the effects of physical environment on the distance-dependent path loss. For simulation purpose, we have compared network performance while considering single-slope and dual-slope path loss models. The derived analytical expressions have been validated through network simulations and found in good agreement. Through comparison, it has been found that the decoupled UE association probability and uplink coverage probability is higher when incorporating multi-slope path loss model as compared to single-slope path loss model while the decoupled uplink spectral efficiency is observed to be lower when incorporating dual slope path loss model.


Downlink uplink decoupled Multi-slope path loss model Heterogeneous cellular networks Coverage probability Spectral efficiency 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic EngineeringNED University of Engineering and TechnologyKarachiPakistan

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