Telecommunication Systems

, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 149–165 | Cite as

An adaptive cache invalidation technique for wireless environments



With an evolution of Internet and related technologies such as 4G, and 5G, there is a need of fast response time for various queries raised by intermediate nodes and mobile terminals from infra structured-based/less networks. Although there has been many efforts in the past to address this issue by using an invalidation report (IR)-based cache management schemes which reduce the bandwidth requirements, and battery consumptions, but when the update rate of data at the server is high, then most of the existing approaches have long query latency due to large and fixed size of IRs, and broadcast time (BT) interval. To address these issues, in this paper, an adaptive cache invalidation technique (ACIT) is proposed. In comparison to the previous approaches, the proposed scheme uses different thresholds update rates for adaptive IR, and BT intervals. In the proposed scheme, only hot data updates in IR are recorded which results a less query delay, and bandwidth consumption. The performance of the proposed scheme was studied by extensive simulations by comparing it with the other state-of-the-art schemes using various metrics. The proposed scheme yields 1.5 times enhancement in query response time with a reduction in IR size to 25  % in comparison to other existing techniques. Moreover, there is a reduction of 119.89  % in broadcast time interval using the proposed scheme.


Cache invalidation Cooperative caching Cache hit ratio Wireless networks  



We are thankful to all the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments which improves the overall content, quality, and presentation of the paper.


  1. 1.
    Li, Y., & Chen, I. (2011). Adaptive per-user per-object cache consistency management for mobile data access in wireless mesh networks. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 71(2), 1034–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Newman, M. (2003). The structure and function of complex networks. SIAM Review, 45(1), 167–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sutton, C. (2008). Internet began 35 years ago at ucla with first message ever sent between two computers. Los Angeles: UCLA.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schacham, N. & Westcott, J. (1987). Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols. In: Proceedings of the IEEE, 75(1), 83–99.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Diacui, C., & Berkenbroc, M. (2008). Supporting cache coherence. In: Mobile cooperative system: Seventh IEEE international symposium on network computing and applications (pp. 240–243).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chuang, J.P., & Chiu, Y. (2008) Constructing efficient cache invalidation schemes for mobile environments. In: Third international IEEE conference on signal-image technology and internet based system (pp. 281–288).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barbara, D., & Imielinksi, T. (1994). Sleepers and workaholics: Caching strategies for mobile environments. ACM SIGMOD, 23, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cao, G. (2000). A scalable low-latency cache invalidation strategy for mobile environments. ACM MOBICOM, 200–209.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Safa, H., Aartail, H., & Nahhas, M. (2010). A cache invalidation strategy for mobile networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 33(2), 168–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khurana, S., Kahol, A., Gupta, S., & Srimani, P. (2000). A strategy to manage cache consistency. In: A distributed mobile wireless environment. IEEE international conference on distributed computing systems (ICDCS).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cao, G., & Dar, C. (2001). On the effectiveness of a counter-based cache lnvdidation scheme and its resiliency to failures in mobile environments. In: Proceeding of 20th IEEE symposium on reliable distributed system (SRDS) (pp. 247–256).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cao, G. (2002). On improving the performance of cache invalidation in mobile environments. Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET), 7(4), 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar, N., & Lee, J. H. (2014). Peer-to-Peer cooperative caching for data dissemination in Urban vehicular communications. IEEE Systems Journal. doi: 10.1109/JSYST.2013.2285611.
  14. 14.
    Tiwari, R., & Kumar, N. (2012). A novel hybrid approach for web caching. In: Proceeding of IMIS 2012 (pp. 512–517). Palermo.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu, C.-C., Fang, J.-F., & Hung, P.-C. (2003). A counter-based cache invalidation scheme for mobile environment with stateless servers. In: IEEE Pacific Rim conference on communications, computers and signal processing PACRIM.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jing, J., Elmagarmid, A., Helal, A., & Alonso, A. (1997). Bit sequences: An adaptive cache invalidation method in mobile/server environments. Mobile Networks and Applications, 2(2), 115–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cai, J., & Tan, K. L. (1999). Energy efficient selective cache invalidation. Wireless Networks, 5(6), 489–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cai, T., & Ooi, H. (2001). An evaluation of cache invalidation strategies in wireless environments. IEEE Transactions On Parallel & Distributed Systems, 12(8), 789–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chand, N., Joshi, R. C., & Misra, M. (2005). Energy efficient invalidation in mobile environment. Journal of Digital Information Management, 3(2), 119–125.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Joseph, M.S., Kumar, M., Shen, H., & Das, S. K. (2005). Energy efficient data retrieval & caching in mobile P2P network. In: International conference on pervasive computing & communications workshops (pp. 50–54).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chin, C., Fie, J., & Chun, P. (2009). A counter based cache invalidation scheme for mobile environments with stateless servers. Communications, Computer & Signal Processing, 2, 623–626.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wu, C. C., Fang, J, & Hung C. P. (2003). A counter-based cache invalidation scheme for mobile environments with stateless servers. In: IEEE Pacific Rim conferences on communications, computers and signal processing (pp. 623–626).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Safa, H., & Aartail, H. (2008). COACS: A cooperative and adaptive caching system for MANETs. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 7(8), 951–977.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chuang, P., & Chiu, Y. (2011). Efficient cache invalidation schemes for mobile data accesses. Information Sciences, 181, 5084–5101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fatima, N., & Khader, P. (2011). Enhanced adaptive cache invalidation approach for mobile environments. In: 3rd IEEE international conference on electronic computer technology (ICECT) (pp. 76–80).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lim, S., Lee, S., Soha, M., & Lee, B. (2013). Energy-aware optimal cache consistency level for mobile devices. Information Sciences, 230(5), 94–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Paul, P., & Saravanan, N. (2013). Efficient service cache management in mobile P2P networks. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(6), 1505–1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nguyen, T., & Dong, T. (2010). An efficient cache invalidation system in mobile information systems. In: IEEE international conference on computing and communication technology, research, innovation, and vision for future (RIVF) (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Paul, P., Saravanan, N., Baskaran, R., & Dhavachelvan, P. (2013). Efficient service cache management in mobile P2P networks. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(6), 1505–1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chan, E., Li, W., & Chen, D. (2009). Energy saving strategies for cooperative cache replacement in mobile ad hoc networks. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 5(1), 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sunho, L., Chansu, Y., & Das, C. R. (2012). Cache invalidation strategies for internet-based vehicular ad hoc networks. Computer Communications, 35, 380–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cao, G., Yin, L., & Das, L. C. (2004). Cooperative cache based data access in ad-hoc networks. Computer, 37(2), 32–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shen, H., Joseph, M. S., Kumar, M., & Das, S. (2005). A scheme for cooperative caching in mobile Peer to Peer network. IEEE international parllel & distributed processing symposium (pp. 57–64).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chan, E., & Liw, L. (2012). Movement prediction based cooperative caching for location dependent information service in mobile adhoc network. Journal of Supercomputing, 59(1), 297–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yin, L., & Cao, G. (2006). Supporting cooperative caching in ad hoc networks. IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing, 5(1), 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kumar, P., Chauhan, N., Awasthi, L., & Chand, N. (2010). Proactive approach for cooperative caching in mobile adhoc networks. International Journal of Computer Science, 7(8), 21–27.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mrmol, F., & Prez, G. (2012). TRIP: A trust and reputation infrastructure-based proposal for vehicular ad hoc networks. Journal of Network and Computer Application, 35(3), 934–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dubey, A., & Sharma, S. (2011). A cache invalidation scheme through data classification in IVANET. International Journal of Computer Application, 25(9), 54–57.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang, Y., & Li, F. (2005). Vehicular ad hoc networks. chapter 20, 503–525.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ahmadifard, N., Nabizadeh, H., & Abbaspour, M. (2014). ISEFF: An id-based scalable and efficient distributed file shaing technique in vehicular ad hoc networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 75(2), 821–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    NS2 simulator, (2008)
  42. 42.
    Issariyakul, T., & Hossain, E. (2011). Introduction to network simulator NS2. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lim, S., Lee, W., Cao, G., & Das, C. R. (2006). A novel caching scheme for improving Internetbased mobile ad hoc networks performance. Ad Hoc Networks, 4(2), 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations