A distributed transcoding and content protection system
- 224 Downloads
Video coding is a process for adapting media content to the constraints of transmission networks delivery and terminal device visualization. Moreover, content protection is also necessary. Nowadays the heterogeneity of client devices is increasing leading to different resolutions, qualities and form factors. Due to this, transcoding and protection are essential processes to be conducted in modern video distribution networks to adapt video to devices and network constraints and to enable pay per quality schemas enforcing content licenses. Unfortunately, transcoding and protection can be no longer considered linear since every single content should be transcoded in several formats and sometimes protected, so it would require a long time to finish. Modern scalable coding techniques, as H264 SVC, can help to save processing power and bandwidth providing in a single stream several video versions. However, if the enhancements of a SVC encoded content are protected separately, it would possible to enable pay-per-quality providing an additional degree of freedom to content delivery industry. Unfortunatelly, transcoding and protection entail huge doses of processing power at provider side and should be distributed. Moreover, processing key streams to decrypt enhancements that were encrypted separately can increase the complexity at receiver side. Cloud computing emerges as a potential solution for coping with large population of users with heterogeneous visualization devices. The elastic nature of cloud computing can be an advantage given the difficulty to predict the computing resources video content would require to be distributed during the entire content life. This article describes a system that distributes and parallelizes the video transcoding process as well as the content encryption, following the SaaS approach in cloud computing. Moreover, the article describes an experimental approach for generating and processing a flexible key stream that would help to simplify key management at receiver side and would allow legacy receivers to consume SVC content with separate enhancement protection.
KeywordsTranscoding Content protection keyword Cloud computing
The authors would like to thank Raul Varela Izquierdo for his contribution to this work. This work was partially founded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under the project TEC2010-20572-C02-01 (CONSEQUENCE) and by the State of Madrid (Spain) under the Contract Number S2009/TIC-1650 (e-Madrid)
- 1.Agboma, F., & Liotta, A. (2012). Quality of experience management in mobile content delivery systems. Telecommunication Systems, 49(1), 85–98. doi: 10.1007/s11235-010-9355-6.
- 2.Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R. H., Konwinski, A., Lee, G., Patterson, D. A., Rabkin, A., Stoica, I., Zaharia, M. (2009). Above the clouds: A berkeley view of cloud computing. Technical Report. UCB/EECS-2009-28, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley (2009). URL http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html
- 6.Diaz-Sanchez, D., Almenarez, F., Marin, A., Arias, P., Sanchez-Guerrero, R., Sanvido, F. (2011). A privacy aware media gateway for connecting private multimedia clouds to limited devices. In Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 2011 4th Joint IFIP, (pp. 1–8). doi: 10.1109/WMNC.2011.6097259.
- 8.D.I.T.F. on the Future Internet Content (2009). Draft report of the task force on interdisciplinary research activities applicable to the future internet (2009). URL http://www.future-internet.eu. External Technical Experts: G. Camarillo, S. Dustdar, J. Magen, S. Paulus
- 11.ETSI (1996). Digital video broadcasting (dvb); support for use of scrambling and conditional access (ca) within digital broadcasting systems. Technical Report. ETR 289, ETSI.Google Scholar
- 12.Garcia, A., Kalva, H. (2011). Cloud transcoding for mobile video content delivery. In IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011 (pp. 379–380). doi: 10.1109/ICCE.2011.5722637.
- 13.Garrido-Cantos, R., Cock, J., Martínez, J., Leuven, S., Garrido, A. (2011). Video transcoding for mobile digital television. Telecommunication Systems (pp. 1–12). doi: 10.1007/s11235-011-9594-1.
- 15.H.264 : Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services. Technical Report H.264, ITU-T (2007).Google Scholar
- 16.Huang, Z., Mei, C., Li, L., Woo, T. (2011). Cloudstream: Delivering high-quality streaming videos through a cloud-based svc proxy. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2011 (pp. 201–205). doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2011.5935009.
- 17.Mardanian Dehkordi, A., Tabataba Vakili, V. (2011). An improved equation based rate adaptation scheme for video streaming over umts. Telecommunication Systems (pp. 1–13). doi: 10.1007/s11235-011-9668-0.
- 18.Menezes, A., Vanstone, S. A. (eds.) (1991). Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO ’90, 10 th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, California, USA, August 11–15, 1990, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 537. Springer.Google Scholar
- 19.Page, T. (2009). The application of hash chains and hash structures to cryptography. Technical Report: Royal Holloway, University of London.Google Scholar
- 20.Parkhill, D. F. (1966). The challenge of the computer utility [by] D. F. Parkhill. Boston: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Reading, Mass.Google Scholar
- 21.Velte, T., Velte, A., & Elsenpeter, R. (2010). Cloud computing, a practical approach (1st ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc.Google Scholar