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Path diversification for future internet end-to-end resilience and survivability


Path Diversification is a new mechanism that can be used to select multiple paths between a given ingress and egress node pair using a quantified diversity measure to achieve maximum flow reliability. The path diversification mechanism is targeted at the end-to-end layer, but can be applied at any level for which a path discovery service is available. Path diversification also takes into account service requirements for low-latency or maximal reliability in selecting appropriate paths. Using this mechanism will allow future internetworking architectures to exploit naturally rich physical topologies to a far greater extent than is possible with shortest-path routing or equal-cost load balancing. We describe the path diversity metric and its application at various aggregation levels, and apply the path diversification process to 13 real-world network graphs as well as 4 synthetic topologies to asses the gain in flow reliability. Based on the analysis of flow reliability across a range of networks, we then extend our path diversity metric to create a composite compensated total graph diversity metric that is representative of a particular topology’s survivability with respect to distributed simultaneous link and node failures. We tune the accuracy of this metric having simulated the performance of each topology under a range of failure severities, and present the results. The topologies used are from national-scale backbone networks with a variety of characteristics, which we characterize using standard graph-theoretic metrics. The end result is a compensated total graph diversity metric that accurately predicts the survivability of a given network topology.

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    Results presented in this paper are not to serve as a recommendation of one network over another for business purposes. Due to common business practices the Internet service providers listed (with the exception of GÉANT2) do not make their network topology data publicly available, and the data sets used are inferred by third parties.

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    In order to keep the number of figures manageable we show plots from a few representative topologies. The plots for the entire set of topologies may be downloaded in our online appendix at


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This is an extended version and substantial revision of papers that appeared in IEEE RNDM 2009 [37], IEEE DRCN 2009 [36], and IEEE/IFIP RNDM 2011 [38]. The authors would like to thank the members of the ResiliNets group for discussions which led to this work. This research was supported in part by NSF FIND (Future Internet Design) Program under grant CNS-0626918 (Postmodern Internet Architecture), by NSF grant CNS-1050226 (Multilayer Network Resilience Analysis and Experimentation on GENI), and by the EU FP7 FIRE programme ResumeNet project (grant agreement No. 224619).

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Correspondence to Justin P. Rohrer.

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Work performed while Justin P. Rohrer and Abdul Jabbar were at University of Kansas.

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Rohrer, J.P., Jabbar, A. & Sterbenz, J.P.G. Path diversification for future internet end-to-end resilience and survivability. Telecommun Syst 56, 49–67 (2014).

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  • Path diversification
  • Geographic diversity
  • Multi-path routing
  • Multi-path transport protocols
  • Network resilience
  • Survivability
  • Disruption tolerance
  • Dependability
  • Reliability
  • Availability
  • Performability
  • Topology
  • Measurement