Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Experiments on MIMO-OFDM system combined with adaptive beamforming based on IEEE 802.16e WMAN standard


This paper presents field experiments on a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) system that combines Adaptive Beamforming (ABF) and Spatial Multiplexing (SM) procedures. The combination of SM signal processing with ABF is applied to WiBro, the South Korean Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system that follows the IEEE 802.16e standard. The field experimental results show that ABF-MIMO OFDM system outperforms a simple MIMO OFDM system by 2 dB (1.5 dB) in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for 16-QAM (64-QAM) under low correlated fading channel and 4 dB (2.5 dB) in the SNR for 16-QAM (64-QAM) under highly correlated fading channel, respectively, at the frame error rate (FER) of 1%. Details on the implementation of ABF-MIMO OFDM system is also presented in this paper. Through the system implementation and its field experimental results, we verify that the combination of MIMO OFDM system with ABF provides improved performance over a simple MIMO OFDM system in real propagation channel environment and, in particular, it is more effective in highly correlated fading channel.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Tarokh, V., Shshadri, N., & Calderbank, A. R. (1998). Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communications: performance criterion and code construction. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 44, 744–765.

  2. 2.

    Hollanti, C., Lahtonen, J., Ranto, K., Vehkalahti, R., & Viterbo, E. (2008). On the algebraic structure of the Silver code. IEEE Inform. Theory Worksh., Porto, Portugal, May 2008.

  3. 3.

    Yao, H., & Wornell, G. W. (2003). Achieving the full MIMO diversity-multiplexing frontier with rotation-based space-time codes. In Proceed. Allerton conf. commun. control comp., Monticello, IL, Oct. 2003.

  4. 4.

    Belfiore, J.-C., Rekaya, G., & Viterbo, E. (2005). The Golden code: A 2×2 full-rate space-time code with nonvanishing determinants. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 51(4), 1432–1436.

  5. 5.

    Tirkkonen, O., & Hottinen, A. (2002). Square-matrix embeddable space-time block codes for complex signal constellations. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(2), 385–395.

  6. 6.

    Paredes, J. M., Gershman, A. B., & Gharavi-Alkhansari, M. (2008). A new full-rate full-diversity space-time block code with nonvanishing determinants and simpli_ed maximum-likelihood decoding. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 56(6), 2461–2469.

  7. 7.

    Foschini, G. J., & Gans, M. J. (1998). On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas. Wireless Personal Communications, 6(3), 311–335.

  8. 8.

    Raleigh, G. G., & Cioffi, J. M. (1998). Spatio-temporal coding for wireless communications. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 46(3), 357–366.

  9. 9.

    IEEE P802.16e/D12. Part 16: Air interface for fixed and mobile broadband wireless access systems. IEEE, Oct. 2005.

  10. 10.

    Alex, S. P., & Jalloul, L. M. A. (2008). Performance evaluation of mimo in IEEE 802.16e/WiMAX. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 2(2), 181–190.

  11. 11.

    Stuber, G. L., Barry, J. R., McLaughlin, S. W., Ye, L., Ingram, M. A., & Pratt, T. G. (2004). Broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communications. IEEE Proceedings, 92, 271–294.

  12. 12.

    Sampath, H., Talwar, S., Tellado, J., Erceg, V., & Paulraj, A. J. (2002). A fourth-generation MIMO-OFDM broadband wireless system: design, performance, and field trial results. IEEE Communications Magazine, 40, 143–149.

  13. 13.

    Bolcskei, H. (2006). MIMO-OFDM wireless systems: basics, perspectives, and challenges. IEEE Wireless Communications, 13, 31–37.

  14. 14.

    Narasimhan, R. (2003). Spatial multiplexing with transmit antenna and constellation selection for correlated MIMO fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 51, 2829–2838.

  15. 15.

    Bolcskei, H., Borgmann, M., & Paulraj, A. J. (2002). Performance of space-frequency coded broadband OFDM under real-world propagation conditions. In Proc. Eur. conf. signal process (pp. 413–416).

  16. 16.

    Lee, W. C., & Choi, S. (2005). Adaptive beamforming algorithm based on eigen-space method for smart antennas. IEEE Communications Letters, 9(10), 888–890.

  17. 17.

    Haene, S., Perels, D., & Burg, A. (2008). A real-time 4-stream MIMO-OFDM transceiver: system design, FPGA implementation, and characterization. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 26(6).

  18. 18.

    Borkowski, D., Brühl, L., Degen, C., Keusgen, W., Alirezaei, G., Geschewski, F., Oikonomopoulos, C., & Rembold, B. (2006). SABA: a testbed for a real-time MIMO system. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 4, 1–15.

  19. 19.

    Irmer, R., Mayer, H. P., Weber, A., Braun, V., Schmidt, M., Ohm, M., Ahr, N., Zoch, A., Jandura, C., Marsch, P., & Fettweis, G. (2007). Multisite field trial for LTE and advanced concepts. IEEE Communications Magazine, 47, 92–98.

  20. 20.

    Tenorio, S., Exadaktylos, K., McWilliams, B., & Le, Y. P. (2010). Mobile broadband field network performance with HSPA+. In 2010 European Wireless Conference (EW) (pp. 269–273).

  21. 21.

    Yu, H., Song, K., Ryu, K., Kim, Y., Min, S., & Lee, S. (2006). Design and FPGA implementation of MIMO-OFDM based WLAN systems. In IEEE vehicular technology conference 2006 (vol. 3, pp. 1333–1338).

  22. 22.

    Lim, G. B., Cimini, L. J., & Greenstein, L. J. (2005). Analysis and results for H-MIMO—a hybrid of spatial multiplexing and adaptive beamforming. In IEEE MILCOM 2005 (vol. 2, pp. 1187–1192).

  23. 23.

    Kim, I., Lee, K., & Chun, J. (2007). A MIMO antenna structure that combines transmit beamforming and spatial multiplexing. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 6(3), 775–779.

  24. 24.

    Choi, S., & Yun, D. (1997). Design of adaptive antenna array for tracking the source of maximum power and its application to CDMA mobile communications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 45, 1393–1404.

  25. 25.

    Choi, S., & Shim, D. (2000). A novel adaptive beamforming algorithm for a smart antenna system in a CDMA mobile communication environment. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 49(5), 1793–1806.

  26. 26.

    Wolniansky, P. W., Foschini, G. J., Golden, G. D., & Valenzuela, R. A. (1998). VBLAST: an architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel. In Proc. IEEE ISSSE’98, Pisa, Italy (pp. 295–300).

  27. 27.

    Thomas, T. A., Hillery, W. J., Kepler, J., & Desai, V. (2009). Estimating statistical eigen-beamforming gains using spatial channel correlation. In IEEE international conference on communications, 2009. ICC ’09, 14–18 June 2009 (pp. 1–5).

  28. 28.

    Rangaraj, G. V., Jalihal, D., & Giridhar, K. (2005). Exploiting multipath diversity in multiple antenna OFDM systems with spatially correlated channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 54(4), 1372–1378.

  29. 29.

    Rec. ITU-R M.1225 (1998). Guidelines for evaluation of radio Transmission Technologies for IMT-2000, ITU-R.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Jaeho Chung.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chung, J., Yun, Y. & Choi, S. Experiments on MIMO-OFDM system combined with adaptive beamforming based on IEEE 802.16e WMAN standard. Telecommun Syst 52, 1931–1944 (2013).

Download citation


  • MIMO
  • Adaptive beamforming (ABF)
  • OFDM
  • IEEE 802.16e
  • WiBro