Zero level of a purely magnetic two-dimensional nonrelativistic Pauli operator for SPIN-1/2 particles
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We study the manifold of complex Bloch-Floquet eigenfunctions for the zero level of a two-dimensional nonrelativistic Pauli operator describing the propagation of a charged particle in a periodic magnetic field with zero flux through the elementary cell and a zero electric field. We study this manifold in full detail for a wide class of algebraic-geometric operators. In the nonzero flux case, the Pauli operator ground state was found by Aharonov and Casher for fields rapidly decreasing at infinity and by Dubrovin and Novikov for periodic fields. Algebraic-geometric operators were not previously known for fields with nonzero flux because the complex continuation of “magnetic” Bloch-Floquet eigenfunctions behaves wildly at infinity. We construct several nonsingular algebraic-geometric periodic fields (with zero flux through the elementary cell) corresponding to complex Riemann surfaces of genus zero. For higher genera, we construct periodic operators with interesting magnetic fields and with the Aharonov-Bohm phenomenon. Algebraic-geometric solutions of genus zero also generate soliton-like nonsingular magnetic fields whose flux through a disc of radius R is proportional to R (and diverges slowly as R → ∞). In this case, we find the most interesting ground states in the Hilbert space L 2 (ℝ 2 ).
Keywordstwo-dimensional Pauli operator one-energy problem algebraic-geometric solution nonzero magnetic flux ground state Bloch-Floquet manifold Aharonov-Bohm effect
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