Spirorchis spp. (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) infecting map turtles (Cryptodira: Emydidae: Graptemys spp.) in southeastern North America: A new species, molecular phylogenies, and key to species
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Black-knobbed map turtles (Graptemys nigrinoda Cagle) and Alabama map turtles (Graptemys pulchra Baur) were infected with several blood flukes in Alabama (southeastern North America). Spirorchis paraminutus Roberts & Bullard n. sp. differs from its congeners by having a body that is 12−24× longer than wide, a testicular column of 10 testes that is 1/5–1/4 of the body length and located far posterior to the caecal bifurcation (the anterior-most testis is located in the posterior body half), and a common genital pore that is ventral to the ovary and 1/4–1/3 of the body length from the posterior extremity. These turtles and an Escambia map turtle (Graptemys ernsti Lovich & McCoy) were infected with Spirorchis elegans Stunkard, 1923, Spirorchis scripta Stunkard, 1923 and two innominate species of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918. Phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) and large subunit rDNA (28S) recovered a monophyletic Spirorchis and the new species sister to Spirorchis collinsi Roberts & Bullard, 2016.
We thank Brian Folt and Jeff Goessling (Auburn University) for helping collect turtles in Alabama; Tom Platt (St. Mary’s College, Notre Dame) for donating his research collection to SAB; and Estefania Rodriguez (AMNH), Anna Philips, Chad Walter, and William Moser (all USNM) for loaning museum specimens.
This study was supported by research grants from the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Auburn University Vice President for Research and Economic Development, Southeastern Cooperative Fish Parasite and Disease Project (Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources), Alabama Agriculture Experiment Station, and US Department of Agriculture. Initial funding was provided by several grants from the National Science Foundation’s Division of Environmental Biology (NSF-DEB 1112729, 1051106, 1048523).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable institutional, national, and international guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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