Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Three new species of Plagioporus Stafford, 1904 from darters (Perciformes: Percidae), with a redescription of Plagioporus boleosomi (Pearse, 1924) Peters, 1957

  • 200 Accesses

  • 8 Citations


A form of Plagioporus Stafford, 1904 is described from the intestine of three North American species of darters (Perciformes: Percidae) from River West Twin, Wisconsin, USA, that we consider to be conspecific with Plagioporus boleosomi (Pearse, 1924) Peters, 1957 based on similarities in the sucker ratio, extent of the forebody, shape and position of the testes, vitellarium distribution and terminal genitalia. Three new species of Plagioporus are described from the intestine of darters as follows: Plagioporus fonti n. sp. from Percina nigrofasciata Agassiz in Florida, USA, Plagioporus limus n. sp. from Etheostoma squamosum Distler in Arkansas, USA and Plagioporus aliffi n. sp. from Etheostoma blennioides newmanni Miller in Arkansas, USA. Morphologically Plagioporus fonti n. sp., Plagioporus limus n. sp. and Plagioporus aliffi n. sp. are most similar to one another and to P. boleosomi, Plagioporus lepomis Dobrovolny, 1939 and ‘P. etheostomae’, a nomen nudum for a species described from Etheostoma blennioides Rafinesque in Kentucky, USA, all of which are collectively distinguished from congeners in having a combination of confluent vitellarium in the post-testicular space and absence of vitelline follicles with their entire length distributed in the forebody. Plagioporus fonti n. sp., P. limus n. sp. and P. aliffi n. sp. are respectively distinguished from one another and their closest congeners in having the anterior extent of the vitellarium in the anterior half of forebody to slightly anterior to the ventral sucker as opposed to one approximately at the level of the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, possession of an excretory vesicle reaching the anterior testis as opposed to one only reaching the posterior testis and having a longer than wide oral sucker and a wider than long ventral sucker. A Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of partial 28S rDNA sequences was conducted using the three new species and 24 sequences of opecoelids retrieved from GenBank, including ten species of Plagioporus. Plagioporus aliffi n. sp., Plagioporus fonti n. sp. and P. boleosomi comprised a moderately supported sister group to a clade containing all species of Plagioporus except Plagioporus limus n. sp. and Plagioporus shawi (Mcintosh, 1939) Margolis, 1970. Plagioporus limus and in turn P. shawi were resolved as sister to all other congeners with high and moderate support, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Figs. 1–4
Figs. 5–8
Figs. 9–12
Figs. 13–16
Fig. 17


  1. Aliff, J. V. (1973). Digenetic trematodes from Kentucky fishes. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Kentucky, Lexington Kentucky. 146 pp.

  2. Aliff, J. V. (1977). Digenetic trematodes from Kentucky fishes. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences, 38, 1–14.

  3. Andres, M. J., Pulis, E. E., & Overstreet, R. M. (2014). New genus of opecoelid trematode from Pristipomoides aquilonaris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) and its phylogenetic affinity within the family Opecoelidae. Folia Parasitologica, 61, 223–230.

  4. Blend, C. K., & Dronen, N. O. (2015). Description of a new species of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) from the cusk-eel, Luciobrotula corethromycter Cohen, 1964 (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae), from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Acta Parasitologica, 60, 234–243.

  5. Born-Torrijos, A., Kostadinova, A., Raga, J. A., & Holzer, A. S. (2012). Molecular and morphological identification of larval opecoelids (Digenea: Opecoelidae) parasitising prosobranch snails in a western Mediterranean lagoon. Parasitology International, 61, 450–460.

  6. Bray, R. A., Cribb, T. H., Littlewood, D. T. J., & Waeschenbach, A. (2016). The molecular phylogeny of the digenean family Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925 and the value of morphological characters, with the erection of a new subfamily. Folia Parasitologica, 63, 1–11.

  7. Bray, R. A., Waeschenbach, A., Dyal, P., Littlewood, D. T. J., & Morand, S. (2014). New digeneans (Opecoelidae) from hydrothermal vent fishes in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including one new genus and five new species. Zootaxa, 3768, 73–87.

  8. Bray, R. A., Webster, B. L., Bartoli, P., & Littlewood, D. T. J. (2005). Relationships within the Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906 and their place among the Digenea. Acta Parasitologica,, 50, 281–291.

  9. Constenla, M., Carrassón, M., Moyà, C. M., Fernàndez-Chacón, A., Padrós, F., Repullés-Albelda, A.., & Montero, F. E. (2011). Parasitisation by Bathycreadium elongatum (Digenea, Opecoelidae) in pyloric caeca of Trachyrincus scabrus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 96, 239–247.

  10. Cribb, T. H. (2005). Family Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925. In: A. Jones, R. A. Bray & D. I. Gibson (Eds), Keys to the Trematoda. Volume 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, pp. 443–532.

  11. Curran, S. S., Overstreet, R. M., & Tkach, V. V. (2007). Phylogenetic affinities of Plagiocirrus Van Cleave and Mueller, 1932 with description of a new species from the Pascagoula River, Mississippi. Journal of Parasitology, 93, 1452–1458.

  12. Darriba, D., Taboada, G. L., Doallo, R., & Posada, D. (2012). jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods, 9, 772.

  13. Dobrovolny, C. G. (1939). The life history of Plagioporus lepomis, a new trematode from fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 25, 461–470.

  14. Fayton, T. J., & Andres, M. J. (2016). New species of Plagioporus Stafford (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from California, with an amendment of the genus and a phylogeny of freshwater plagioporines of the Holarctic. Systematic Parasitology, 93, 731–748.

  15. Hoffman, G. L. (1999). Parasites of North American freshwater fishes. Second Edn. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Associates, 539 pp.

  16. Howard, C. N., & Aliff, J. V. (1980). Metazoan parasites of fishes from Piedmont and coastal plain Georgia. Georgia Journal of Science, 8, 173–179.

  17. Huelsenbeck, J. P., & Ronquist, F. (2001). MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Bioinformatics, 17, 754–755.

  18. Huelsenbeck, J. P., Ronquist, F., Nielsen, R., & Bollback, J. P. (2001). Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science, 294, 2310–2314.

  19. Katoh, K., Kuma, K.-I., Toh, H., & Miyata, T. (2005). MAFFT version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment. Nucleic Acids Research, 33, 511–518.

  20. Keller, A., Schleicher, T., Schultz, J., Müller, T., Dandekar, T., & Wolf, M. (2009). 5.8S-28S rRNA interaction and HMM-based ITS2 annotation. Gene, 430, 50–57.

  21. Kuntz, S. M., & Font, W. F. (1984). Seasonal dynamics of Allopodocotyle boleosomi (Pearse, 1924) n. comb. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) in Wisconsin darters (Etheostomatinae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62, 2666–2672.

  22. Littlewood, D. T. L., Curini-Galletti, M., & Herniou, E. A. (2000). The interrelationships of Proseriata (Platyhelminthes: Seriata) tested with molecules and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 16,, 449–466.

  23. McAllister, C. T., Bursey, C. R., Robison, H. W., Neely, D. A., Connior, M. B., & Barger, M. A. (2014a). Miscellaneous fish helminth parasite (Trematoda, Cestoidea, Nematoda, Acanthocephala) records from Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 68, 78–86.

  24. McAllister, C. T., Connior, M. B., Font, W. F., & Robison, H. W. (2014b). Helminth parasites of the banded sculpin, Cottus carolinae (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae), from northern Arkansas, USA. Comparative Parasitology, 81, 203–209.

  25. McAllister, C. T., Font, W. F., Connior, M. B., Robison, H. W., Fayton, T. J., Stokes, N. G., & Criscione, C. D. (2015). Trematode parasites (Digenea) of the slender madtom Noturus exilis and black river madtom Noturus maydeni (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) from Arkansas, USA. Comparative Parasitology, 82, 137–143.

  26. Miller, M. A., Pfeiffer, W., & Schwartz, T. (2010). Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), 14 Nov. 2010, New Orleans, L.A., 1–8.

  27. Olson, P. D., Cribb, T. H., Tkach, V. V., Bray, R. A., & Littlewood, D. T. J. (2003). Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology, 33, 733–755.

  28. Pearse, A. S. (1924). Observations on parasitic worms from Wisconsin fishes. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 12, 147–160.

  29. Pritchard, M. H. (1966). A revision of the genus Podocotyle (Trematoda: Opecoelidae). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 93, 158–172.

  30. Pulis, E., Fayton, T. J., Curran, S. S., & Overstreet, R. M. (2013). A new species of Intromugil (Digenea: Haploporidae) and redescription of Intromugil mugilicolus. Journal of Parasitology, 99, 501–508.

  31. Shedko, M. B., Sokolov, S. G., & Atopkin, D. M. (2015). The first record of Dimerosaccus oncorhynchi (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) in fish from rivers of Primorsky territory, Russia, with a discussion on its taxonomic position using morphological and molecular data. Parazitologiya, 49, 171–189.

  32. Talton, E. L., & Gleason, L. N. (1978). Intestinal helminthes of fishes in the family Percidae from south central Kentucky. Southeastern Biological Bulletin, 25, 61.

  33. Tkach, V. V., Grabda-Kazubska, B., Pawlowski, J., & Swiderski, Z. (1999). Molecular and morphological evidence for close phylogenetic affinities of the genera Macrodera, Leptophallus, Metaleptophallus and Paralepoderma (Digenea, Plagiorchiata). Acta Parasitologica, 44, 170–179.

  34. Tkach, V. V., Littlewood, D. T. J., Olson, P. D., Kinsella, J. M., & Swiderski, Z. (2003). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Microphalloidea Ward, 1901 (Trematoda: Digenea). Systematic Parasitology, 56, 1–15.

  35. Tkach, V. V., Pawlowski, J., & Mariaux, J. (2000). Phylogenetic analysis of the suborder Plagiochiata (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) based on partial lsrDNA sequences. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 83–93.

  36. Tkach, V. V., Pawlowski, J., Mariaux, J., & Swiderski, Z. (2001). Molecular phylogeny of the suborder Plagiorchiata and its position in the system of Digenea. In: Littlewood, D. T. J. & R. A. Bray (Eds), Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, pp. 186–193.

  37. Tkach, V. V., & Snyder, S. D. (2007). Choanocotyle platti sp. nov. from the northern long-necked turtle, Chelodina rugosa (Pleurodira, Chelidae) in Australia. Acta Parasitologica, 52, 318–324.

Download references


From the University of Southern Mississippi, we thank Dr. Richard Heard and Dr. Robin Overstreet for provision of microscopy equipment and funding for molecular work. We also thank Dr. Dennis J. Richardson (Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT) for use of a backpack electroshocker in Arkansas. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.


This work would not have been possible without the support Vassar College Fellowships awarded to TJF that provided funds for the collection of freshwater plagioporines and also living expenses while working up species descriptions at St. Norbert College, including an Adolph Sutro Fellowship in 2013/2014, a Nancy Skinner Clark Fellowship in 2014/2015 and an additional Nancy Skinner Clark Fellowship in 2015/2016. AC acknowledges funding from a 2014 Faculty Development Summer Grant from St. Norbert College.

Author information

Correspondence to Thomas J. Fayton.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable institutional, national and international guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission issued a Scientific Collecting Permit to CTM. We thank the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Committee and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources for issuing permits to collect freshwater fish in Florida and Wisconsin, respectively.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fayton, T.J., Choudhury, A., McAllister, C.T. et al. Three new species of Plagioporus Stafford, 1904 from darters (Perciformes: Percidae), with a redescription of Plagioporus boleosomi (Pearse, 1924) Peters, 1957. Syst Parasitol 94, 159–182 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9697-x

Download citation


  • Anterior Margin
  • Ventral Sucker
  • Oral Sucker
  • Ejaculatory Duct
  • Seminal Receptacle