Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Myxobolus myleus n. sp. infecting the bile of the Amazonian freshwater fish Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae): morphology and pathology

  • 164 Accesses

  • 11 Citations

Abstract

Myxobolus myleus n. sp. is described from the gall-bladder of the freshwater fish Myleus rubripinnis collected near the city of Oriximiná in the Amazon System, Brazil. The spores obtained from the bile contained two equal symmetrical and smooth valves, each forming the spore wall. The spores were large, with a cone-like form, a semi spherical basal contour and measured (in μm) 19.3 ± 0.5 (n = 25) × 8.3 ± 0.5 (n = 25) × 4.0 ± 0.3 (n = 15). The apical end of the spores contained two elongate, equal and pointed conical polar capsules measuring 13.2 ± 0.4 μm (n = 25) in length and 3.0 ± 0.3 μm (n = 15) in width, each having a slightly tapering polar filament with 19 to 21 turns. The polar capsules were extended below at about 4/5 of the total length of the spores. The sporoplasm was binucleate and contained some sporoplasmosomes. All infected fish presented hypertrophy of the gall-bladder due to presence of the brownish parasite floating in the bile. In this paper we describe this new species of myxosporean based on light and ultrastructural observations, together with its associated pathology.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Figs. 1–6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Adriano, E. A., Arana, S., Alves, A. L., Silva, M. R. M., Ceccarelli, P. S., Henrique-Silva, F., & Maia, A. A. M. (2009a). Myxobolus cordeiroi n. sp., a parasite of Zungaro jahu (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Brazilian Pantanal: morphology, phylogeny and histopathology. Veterinary Parasitology, 162, 221–229.

  2. Adriano, E. A., Arana, S., Carriero, M. M., Naldoni, J., Ceccarelli, P. S., & Maia, A. A. M. (2009b). Light, electron microscopy and histopathology of Myxobolus salminus n. sp., a parasite of Salminus brasiliensis from the Brazilian Pantanal. Veterinary Parasitology, 165, 25–29.

  3. Adriano, E. A., Arana, S., Ceccarelli, P. S., & Cordeiro, N. S. (2002). Light and scanning microscopy of Myxobolus porofilus sp. n. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting the visceral cavity of Prochilodus lineatus (Pisces: Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) cultivated in Brazil. Folia Parasitologica, 49, 259–262.

  4. Adriano, E. A., Arana, S., & Cordeiro, N. S. (2006). Myxobolus cuneus n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting the connective tissue of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Pisces: Characidae) in Brazil: histopathology and ultrastructure. Parasite, 13, 137–142.

  5. Azevedo, C., Casal, G., Marques, D., Silva, E., Matos, P., & Matos, E. (2011). Ultrastructure of Myxobolus brycon n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa), parasite of the piraputanga fish Brycon hillarii (Teleostei) from Pantanal (Brazil). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 58, 88–93.

  6. Azevedo, C., Casal, G., Matos, P., Ferreira, I., & Matos, E. (2009). Light and electron microscopy of the spore of Myxobolus heckelii n. sp. (Myxozoa), parasite from the Brazilian fish Centromochlus heckelii (Teleostei: Auchenipteridae). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 56, 589–593.

  7. Azevedo, C., Casal, G., Mendonça, I., Carvalho, E., Matos, P., & Matos, E. (2010). Light and electron microscopy of Myxobolus sciades n. sp. (Myxozoa) a parasite of the gill of Brazilian fish Sciades herzbergii (Block, 1794) (Teleostei). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 101, 203–207.

  8. Azevedo, C., Clemente, S. C. S., Casal, G., Matos, P., Oliveira, E., Al-Guraishy, S., & Matos, E. (2012). Light and ultrastructural analysis of Myxobolus insignis (Myxozoa), infecting the Amazonian fish Semaprochiloduss insignis (Prochilodontidae). Zootaxa, 3182, 51–56.

  9. Azevedo, C., Corral, L., & Matos, E. (2002). Myxobolus desaequalis n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), parasite of the Amazonian freshwater fish, Apteronotus albifrons (Teleostei: Apteronotidae). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 49, 485–488.

  10. Canning, E. U., Curry, A., Anderson, C. L., & Okamura, B. (1999). Ultrastructure of Myxidium trachinorum sp. nov. from the gallbladder of the lesser weever fish Echiichthys vipera. Parasitology Research, 85, 910–919.

  11. Casal, G., Matos, E., & Azevedo, C. (1996). Ultrastructural data on the life cycle stages of Myxobolus braziliensis n. sp. parasite of an Amazonian fish. European Journal of Protistology, 32, 123–127.

  12. Casal, G., Matos, E., & Azevedo, C. (2002). Ultrastructural data on the spore of Myxobolus maculatus n. sp. (phylum Myxozoa), parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis maculatus (Teleostei). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 51, 107–112.

  13. Casal, G., Matos, E., & Azevedo, C. (2006). A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei: Characidae): light and electron microscope observations. Journal of Parasitology, 92, 817–821.

  14. Cellere, E. F., Cordeiro, N. S., & Adriano, E. A. (2002). Myxobolus absonus sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) parasitizing Pimelodus maculatus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae), a South American freshwater fish. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 97, 79–80.

  15. Eiras, J. C., Abreu, P. C., Robaldo, R., & Pereira-Junior, J. (2007). Myxobolus platanus n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), a parasite of Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from Lagoa dos Patos, RS, Brazil. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootécnica, 59, 895–898.

  16. Eiras, J. C., Malta, J. C. O., Varella, A. M. B., & Pavanelli, G. C. (2005a). Myxobolus insignis sp. n. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Myxobolidae), a parasite of the Amazonian teleost fish Semaprochilodus insignis (Osteichthyes: Prochilodontidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 100, 245–247.

  17. Eiras, J. C., Molnár, K., & Lu, Y. S. (2005b). Synopsis of the species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae). Systematic Parasitology, 61, 1–46.

  18. Eiras, J. C., Monteiro, C. M., & Brasil-Sato, M. C. (2010). Myxobolus franciscoi sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a parasite of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil, with a revision of Myxobolus spp. from South America. Zoologia, 27, 131–137.

  19. Eiras, J. C., Saraiva, A., Cruz, C. F., Santos, M. J., & Fiala, I. (2011). Synopsis of the species of Myxidium Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida). Systematic Parasitology, 80, 81–116.

  20. Kent, M. L., Andree, K. B., Bartholomew, J. L., El-Matbouli, M., Desser, S. S., Devlin, R. H., Feist, S. W., Hedrick, R. P., Khattra, J., Hallett, S. L., Lester, R. J. G., Longshaw, M., Palenmela, O., Siddall, M. E., & Xiao, C. (2001). Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 48, 395–413.

  21. Kent, M. L., & Hoffman, G. L. (1984). Two new species of Myxozoa, Myxobolus inaequus sp. n. and Henneguya theca sp. n. from the brain of a South America Knife fish, Eigemannia vircscens (V.). Journal of Protozoology, 31, 91–94.

  22. Lom, J., & Dyková, I. (2006). Myxozoa genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life-cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia Parasitologica, 53(1–36), 13.

  23. Martins, M. L., & Onaka, E. M. (2006). Henneguya garavelli n. sp. and Myxobolus peculiaris n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in the gills of Cyphocharax nagelli (Osteichthyes: Curimatidae) from Rio do Peixe Reservoir, São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, 137, 253–261.

  24. Molnár, K., & Békési, L. (1993). Description of a new Myxobolus species, M. colossomatis n. sp. from the teleost Colossomn macropomum of the Amazon River basin. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 9, 57–63.

  25. Molnár, K., Ranzani-Paiva, M. J., Eiras, J. C., & Rodrigues, E. L. (1998). Myxobolus macroplasmodialis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of the characid teleost, Salminus maxillosus. Acta Protozoologica, 37, 241–245.

  26. Rocha, S., Casal, G., Matos, P., Matos, E., Dkhil, M., & Azevedo, C. (2011). Description of Triangulamyxa spittaca sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a new parasite in the urinary bladder of Colomesus spittacus (Teleostei) from the Amazon River, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of plasmodial stages. Acta Protozoologica, 50, 327–338.

  27. Tajdari, J., Matos, E., Mendonça, I., & Azevedo, C. (2005). Ultrastructural morphology of Myxobolus testicularis n. sp., parasite of the testis of Hemiodopsis microlepis (Teleostei: Hemiodontidae) from the NE of Brazil. Acta Protozoologica, 44, 377–384.

  28. Viozzi, G. P., & Flores, V. R. (2003). Myxidium biliare sp. n. (Myxozoa) from gall bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina). Folia Parasitologica, 50, 190–194.

  29. Wold, D., & Iverson, E. S. (1978). Myxobolus latipinnacola new species (Myxosporidia) from the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur) in South Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 28, 376–380.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Joana and João Carvalheiro (ICBAS/UP) for their excellent photographic assistance and Manoel Newton Souza, a technician from the Campus of the UFF in Oriximiná (Brazil), who provided the access to different sites on the Amazon River and for help with the collection of fish samples. This work complies with the current laws of the countries in which it was performed and was supported by the Fundação Eng. António de Almeida (Porto, Portugal), CNPq and CAPES (Brazil) and a Visiting Professorship at King Saud University (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). We would also like to thank the referees for their comments and suggestions.

Author information

Correspondence to Carlos Azevedo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Azevedo, C., São Clemente, S.C., Casal, G. et al. Myxobolus myleus n. sp. infecting the bile of the Amazonian freshwater fish Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae): morphology and pathology. Syst Parasitol 82, 241–247 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-012-9360-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Freshwater Fish
  • Polar Capsule
  • Spore Wall
  • Polar Filament
  • Onaka