Systematic Parasitology

, 70:159 | Cite as

A revision of Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and a key to its species

  • Anna FaltýnkováEmail author
  • David I. Gibson
  • Aneta Kostadinova


Patagifer Dietz, 1909 is revised and a key to the species is presented. P. oweni n. sp. is described from Threskiornis molucca (Cuvier) in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea and distinguished from the related P. chandrapuri Srivastava, 1952 by: the shape of the pair of large angle spines (cudgel-shaped vs sub-rectangular); pointed (vs rod-shaped) marginal spines; a smaller body and internal organs; more anteriorly located testes; and larger eggs. The new species differs from P. brygooi Richard, 1964 in its larger body, head collar, suckers, pharynx and eggs, longer oesophagus and testes, the latter being also more elongate and more anteriorly located, and a different number of collar spines (61–62 vs 59). P. bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819) (the type-species), P. parvispinosus Yamaguti, 1933, P. chandrapuri and P. vioscai Lumsden, 1962 are redescribed on the basis of museum and newly collected material. The variations in the number and size of the collar spines and other metrical characters of P. bilobus are studied in two different host species from Europe, Plegadis falcinellus and Platalea leucorodia. Other species considered valid are: Patagifer consimilis Dietz, 1909, P. acuminatus Johnston, 1917, P. fraternus Johnston, 1917, P. wesleyi Verma, 1936, P. brygooi and P. toki Onda, Imai & Ishii, 1983. P. plegadisi Sakla, Monib & Mandour, 1988 and P. simarai Nigam, 1944 are considered synonyms of P. bilobus, and P. sarai Saksena, 1957 is placed in synonymy with P. chandrapuri. Forms considered dubious are: P. bilobus of Machida et al. (Jpn J Parasitol 15:339, 1966) and Machida (Bull Natl Sci Mus Tokyo 11:157–160, 1968), P. simerai [sic] of Mehra (The fauna of India and adjacent countries. Platyhelminthes, 1980), P. skrjabini Hilmy, 1949 sp. inq. and P. srivastavai Peter, 1954 sp. inq. Lists of the records and hosts of the 11 valid species are included.


Ventral Sucker Oral Sucker Genital Pore Posterior Extremity Vitelline Follicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful to Patricia Pillit and Dr Eric Hoberg for the loan of specimens from the United States National Parasite Collection and Dr Birger Neuhaus for the loan of material from Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. We are indebted to Dr Tomáš Scholz for his detailed comments on the manuscript. This study was funded by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Project No. IAA6022404), Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (Project No. 524/07/P086) and research projects of the Institute of Parasitology, AS CR (Z60220518 and LC522).


  1. Ališauskaitė, V. (1958). The fauna of the echinostomous larvae in the fresh-water molluscs in the Lithuanian SSR. Acta Parasitologica Lithuanica, 1, 29–42 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  2. Bashkirova, E. Y. (1941). Bird echinostomatids in the USSR with a review of their life cycles. Trudy Bashkirskoi Nauchnoissledovatel’skoi Veterinarnoy Opitnoy Stantsii, 3, 243–300 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Belopol’skaya, M. M. (1954). Fauna of parasites of birds of the Sudzukhinsk reserve (Primorie). Uchenye Zapiski Leningradskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, Seria Biologicheskikh Nauk, 35, 3–34 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Bezubik, B. (1956). Materials to the helminthofauna of aquatic birds of Poland. Acta Parasitologica Polonica, 4, 59–88 (In Polish).Google Scholar
  5. Bhutta, M. S., & Khan, D. (1975). Digenetic trematodes of vertebrates from Pakistan. Bulletin of the Department of Zoology University of the Panjab, 8, 1–175.Google Scholar
  6. Boero, J. J., & Led, J. E. (1968). El parasitismo de la fauna autóctona. III. Los parásitos de las aves argentinas. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias de La Plata, 10, 97–129.Google Scholar
  7. Boero, J. J., & Led, J. E. (1971). El parasitismo de la fauna autóctona. V. Los parásitos de las aves argentinas. VI. Los parásitos de los ofidios argentinos. VII. Los parásitos de los murcielagos argentinos. Analecta Veterinaria, 3, 91–103.Google Scholar
  8. Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, I. E. (1955). Trematodes of birds in Tadzhikistan. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 21, 125–151 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  9. Chen, H. T., et al. (1985). Fauna Sinica. Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea (I) (697 pp.). Beijing: Science Press (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  10. Chernogorenko, M. I. (1983). Larval trematodes in molluscs of Dniepr river and its water reservoirs (212 pp.). Kiev: Naukova Dumka (In Russian).Google Scholar
  11. Chiriac, E., Rang, C., Rang, V., Miron, V., Oprisan, R., & Ion, M. (1975). Contributii la conoasterea helmintilor pasarilor salbatice din Romănia. Muzeul de Stiintele Naturii Bacău. Studii si Comunicări, 1975, 17–29.Google Scholar
  12. Dietz, E. (1909a). Die Echinostomiden der Vögel. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 34, 180–192.Google Scholar
  13. Dietz, E. (1909b). Die Echinostomiden der Vögel (39 pp.). Inaugural-Disertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Philosophischen Fakultät der Albertus-Universität zu Königsberg.Google Scholar
  14. Dietz, E. (1910). Die Echinostomiden der Vögel. Zoologische Jahrbücher, 12, S256–S512.Google Scholar
  15. Digiani, M. C. (2000). Digeneans and cestodes parasitic in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Threskiornithidae) from Argentina. Folia Parasitologica, 47, 195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ginetsinskaya, T. A., & Kulik, T. N. (1952). Resolution of the cycle of the trematode Patagifer bilobus (Rud., 1819) Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 85, 1189–1191 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  17. Graber, M. (1975). Helminthes et helminthiases des animaux domestiques et sauvages d’Ethiopie. Tome 2. Deuxième Mission Veterinaire Française en Ethiopie, Janv.-Mars. ’75 (206 pp.). Maisons-Alfort: I.E.M.V.T.Google Scholar
  18. Graber, M., Blanc, P., & Delavenay, R. (1980). Helminthes des animaux sauvages d’Ethiopie. 2. Oiseaux. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, Serie A Sciences Naturelles, 42, 544–570.Google Scholar
  19. Gupta, P. D. (1979). Trematode fauna of Rajasthan, India. Part 2. Families Cathaemasiidae, Echinostomatidae & Paramphistomidae. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 75, 203–208.Google Scholar
  20. Hilmy, I. S. (1949). Patagifer skrjabini sp. n. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) from the glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus, with a note on the genus. Proceedings of the Egyptian Academy of Sciences, 4, 20–23.Google Scholar
  21. Iskova, N. I. (1985). Fauna of Ukraine. Trematoda (Vol. 34, 198 pp.). Kiev: Naukova Dumka (In Russian).Google Scholar
  22. Jain, S. P. (1967). Redescription of Patagifer wesleyi Verma, 1936 (fam. Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926). Indian Journal of Helminthology, 19, 70–76.Google Scholar
  23. Jain, S. P., & Shrivastava, O. N. (1970). On the validity of some species of the genus Patagifer (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B, 72, 156–161.Google Scholar
  24. Johnston, S. J. (1917). On the trematodes of Australian birds. Journal of Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 50, 187–261.Google Scholar
  25. Kostadinova, A. (2005). Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899. In A. Jones, R. A. Bray, & D. I. Gibson (Eds.), Keys to the trematoda (Vol. 2, pp. 9–64). Wallingford: CABI Publishing & Natural History Museum.Google Scholar
  26. Kostadinova, A., Chipev, N., & Genov, T. (1988). Trematodes of grebes (Podicipedidae) from northeastern Bulgaria. I. Species composition and morphology of the trematodes belonging to the families Cyclocoelidae, Echinostomatidae and Notocotylidae. Khelmintologia, 26, 10–24.Google Scholar
  27. Looss, A. (1899). Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Trematodenfauna Ägyptens, zugleich Versuch einer natürlichen Gliederung des Genus Distomum Retzius. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere, 12, 521–784.Google Scholar
  28. Lumsden, R. D. (1962). Four echinostome trematodes from Louisiana birds including the description of a new species. Tulane Studies in Zoology, 9, 301–308.Google Scholar
  29. Machida, M. (1968). Patagifer bilobus (Echinostomatidae: Trematoda) from white ibis, Threskiornis melanocephala. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, 11, 157–160.Google Scholar
  30. Machida, M., Kamegai, S. M., & Suzuki, T. (1966). Patagifer bilobus found from Threskiornis melanocephala. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 15, 339 (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  31. Mehra, H. R. (1980). The fauna of India and adjacent countries. Platyhelminthes (Vol. 1, 418 pp.). Delhi: Zoological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  32. Mendheim, H. (1940). Beiträge zur Systematik und Biologie der Familie Echinostomatidae (Trematoda). Nova Acta Leopoldina, 8, 489–588.Google Scholar
  33. Mendheim, H. (1943). Beiträge zur Systematik und Biologie der Familie Echinostomatidae (Trematoda). Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 12, 175–302.Google Scholar
  34. Mikeš, M., Šoti, J., Sey, O., & Dimitrijeviċ, S. (1975). Survey of the trematodes of the fish-eating birds in Vojvodina. Arhiv Bioloških Nauka, Beograd, 26, 55–59.Google Scholar
  35. Nicoll, W. (1914). The trematode parasites of North Queensland. II. Parasites of birds. Parasitology, 7, 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nigam, V. V. (1944). New trematodes of the family Echinostomatidae Poche, 1925. (Part III). Genus Patagifer. Allahabad University Studies, Biology Section, 1944, 9–13.Google Scholar
  37. Odening, K. (1963). Einige Trematoden von aus der Sowjetunion importierten Vögeln des Berliner Tierparks. Zoologische Abhandlungen und Berichte aus dem Staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 26, 249–255.Google Scholar
  38. Odhner, T. (1910). Nordostafrikanische Trematoden, grösstenteils vom Weissen Nil. I; Fascioliden. Results of the Swedish Zoological Expedition to Egypt and the White Nile. 1901 under the direction of L. A. Jägerskiöld, 23A, 1–170.Google Scholar
  39. Olteanu, G., Lungu, V., & Popescu, S. (1968). New species of trematodes in the wild birds of the Danube delta. Helminthologia, 10, 437–456.Google Scholar
  40. Onda, C., Imai, S., & Ishii, T. (1983). A new echinostome trematode, Patagifer toki, sp. n., from the Japanese crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Japanese Journal of Parasitology, 32, 177–182.Google Scholar
  41. Pandey, K. C. (1973). Studies on some known and unknown trematode parasites. Indian Journal of Zootomy, 14, 197–219.Google Scholar
  42. Peter, C. T. (1954). A note on the life cycle of Patagifer srivastavai, n. sp., raised experimentally. Proceedings of the 41st Indian Scientific Congress, Part III, Section IX: Medical and Veterinary Sciences, p. 221.Google Scholar
  43. Rajvanshi, I., & Gupta, A. N. (1983). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of digenetic trematodes fauna in cattle egrett, Bubulcus ibis coromandus. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Parasitology, 4, 1–5.Google Scholar
  44. Richard, J. (1964). Trématodes d’oiseaux de Madagascar (Note III). Espéces de la famille Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 39, 607–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Rudolphi, C. A. (1819). Entozoorum synopsis cui accedunt mantissa duplex et indices locupletissimi (811 pp.). Berolini.Google Scholar
  46. Sakla, A. A., Monib, M. E. M., & Mandour, A. M. (1988). A description of new species Patagifer plegadisi (Echinostomatidae: Trematoda) from naturally infected glossy ibis, Plegadis f. falcinellus in Upper Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 20, 78–82.Google Scholar
  47. Saksena, J. N. (1957). Studies on a new species of the genus Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B, 27, 265–268.Google Scholar
  48. Skrjabin, K. I. (1913). Vogeltrematoden aus Russisch Turkestan. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, 35, 351–388Google Scholar
  49. Skrjabin, K. I., & Bashkirova, E. Y. (1956). Family Echinostomatidae. In K. I. Skrjabin (Ed.), Trematodes of animals and man. Osnovy Trematodologii, 12, 501–546 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  50. Srivastava, O. N. (1952). A new trematode, Patagifer chandrapuri n. sp. of the family Echinostomatidae Poche, 1925. Allahabad University Studies, 1952, 55–61.Google Scholar
  51. Srivastava, C. B. (1974). A critical study of Verma’s “Notes on trematode parasites of Indian birds”, based on his trematode collection. Part 2. Family Echinostomatidae Dietz, 1909. Journal of the Zoological Society of India, 24, 169–191.Google Scholar
  52. Srivastava, C. B. (1982). The fauna of India and adjacent countries. Platyhelminthes Vol. 1 (Suppl.) Trematoda – Digenea (163 pp.). Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  53. Verma, S. C. (1936). Notes on trematode parasites of Indian birds. Part I. Allahabad University Studies, 12, 147–188.Google Scholar
  54. Viana, L. (1924). Tentativa de catalogação das espécies brasileiras de trematódeos. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 17, 95–227.Google Scholar
  55. Yamaguti, S. (1933). Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 1. Trematodes of birds, reptiles and mammals. Japanese Journal of Zoology, 5, 1–134.Google Scholar
  56. Zdun, V. I. (1961). Larval trematodes in fresh-water molluscs in the Ukraine (144 pp.). Kiev: Vidavnitstvo Akademii Nauk Ukrainskoi RSR (In Ukrainian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Faltýnková
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • David I. Gibson
    • 3
  • Aneta Kostadinova
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologyBiology Centre of the Czech Academy of SciencesČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Environmental ScienceUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyNatural History MuseumLondon UK
  4. 4.Central Laboratory of General EcologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations