Advertisement

Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 69, Issue 2, pp 145–153 | Cite as

Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., a new tetradonematid nematode parasitising South American populations of Cephalotes atratus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with the discovery of an apparent parasite-induced host morph

  • George PoinarJr
  • Stephen P. Yanoviak
Article

Abstract

A new genus and species of tetradonematid nematode, Myrmeconema neotropicum n. g., n. sp., is described from larval, pupal and adult stages of Cephalotes atratus L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Peru and Panama. Diagnostic characters of the new genus include: males and females subequal in size; cuticle with minute annulations; six cephalic papillae; stylet present in all stages; stichocytes absent; trophosome degenerate; three penetration glands; gonads paired and opposite; vulva in mid-body region; single spicule; genital papillae absent; adult tails rounded; infective juveniles moult once in egg; and adults of both sexes remain in the host throughout their development. As the female nematodes mature inside the worker ants, the host gasters change colour from black to red.

Keywords

Infective Stage Infective Juvenile Barro Colorado Island Cephalic Papilla Genital Papilla 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Cesare Baroni Urbani for supplying information concerning the red gasters of C. atratus and Roberta Poinar for comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. We are grateful to the Panamanian Autoridad Nacional del Ambiente (ANAM) and the Peruvian Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) for providing collecting permits, the Amazon Conservatory for Tropical Studies, Explorama Lodges and numerous private individuals for allowing access to field sites in Peru, and to Frank Azorsa, Robert Dudley, Michael Kaspari and Shauna Price for assistance in the field. This research was funded in part by the National Geographic Society, the Amazon Conservation Association and the BBC Natural History Unit.

References

  1. Bird, A. F. (1971). The structure of nematodes (318 pp). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Christie, J. R. (1936). Life history of Agamermis decaudata, a nematode parasite of grasshoppers and other insects. Journal of Agricultural Research, 52, 161–198.Google Scholar
  3. Christie, J. R. (1937). Mermis subnigrescens, a nematode parasite of grasshoppers. Journal of Agricultural Research, 55, 353–364.Google Scholar
  4. Cobb, N. A. (1919). Tetradonema plicans nov. gen. et spec., representing a new family, Tetradonematidae as now found parasitic in larvae of the midge-insect Sciara coprophila Lintner. Journal of Parasitology, 5, 176–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Andrade, M. L., & Baroni Urbani, C. (1999). Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present. Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde, Serie B (Geologie und Palaontologie), Nr. 271, 889 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Emery, C. (1894). Viaggio del Dottor Alfredo Borellinella Repubblica Argentina e nel Paraguay.VIII. Formiche. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e di Anatomia Comparata della Universitá Torino, 9, 1–4.Google Scholar
  7. Goodey, T. (1941). On the morphology of Mermithonema entomophilum n.g., n.sp., a nematode parasite of the fly Sepsis cynipsea L. Journal of Helminthology, 19, 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Keilin, M. D. (1917). Sur un nématode nouveau, Aproctonema entomophagum n. g., n. sp., parasite d’une larve d’un Diptère. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, 165, 399–401.Google Scholar
  9. Mondet, B., Poinar, G. O. Jr, & Bernadou, J. (1977). Etude du parasitisme des simulies (Diptera: Simuliidae) par des Mermithidae (Nematoda) en Afrique de l’ouest. IV: Description de Isomermis lairdi, n. sp., parasite de Simulium damnosum. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55, 2011–2017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nickle, W. R. (1969). Corethrellonema grandispiculosum n. gen., n. sp. and Aproctonema chapmani n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae), parasites of the dipterous insect genera, Corethrella and Culicoides in Louisiana. Journal of Nematology, 1, 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Nickle, W. R., & Jouvenaz, D. P. (1987). Tetradonema solenopsis n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae) parasitic on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren from Brazil. Journal of Nematology, 19, 311–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Poinar, G. O., Jr (1975). Entomogenous nematodes: a manual and host list of insect-nematode associations (317 pp). Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  13. Poinar, G. O. Jr (2003). Formicitylenchus oregonensis n.g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants. Systematic Parasitology, 56, 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Poinar, G. O. Jr, & Hess, R. T. (1974). Structure of the preparasitic juveniles of Filipjevimermis lepsandra and some other Mermithidae (Nematodea). Nematologica, 20, 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Poinar, G. O. Jr, & Hess, R. (1977). Romanomermis culicivorax: morphological evidence of transcuticular uptake. Experimental Parasitology, 42, 27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Poinar, G. O. Jr, Lachaud, J.-P., Castillo, A., & Francisco Infante, F. (2006). Recent and fossil nematode parasites (Nematoda: Mermithidae) of Neotropical ants. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 91, 19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Poinar, G. O. Jr, Lane R. S., & Thomas, G. M. (1976). Biology and redescription of Pheromermis pachysoma (V. Linstow) n. gen., n. comb., a parasite of yellowjackets. Nematologia, 22, 360–370.Google Scholar
  18. Poinar, G. O. Jr, & Mullens, B. A. (1987). Heleidomermis magnapapula n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitizing Culicoides variipennis (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) in California. Revue de Nématologie, 10, 387–391.Google Scholar
  19. Poinar, G. O. Jr, Porter, S. D., Tang, S., & Hyman, B. C. (2007). Allomermis solenopsii n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitizing the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. Systematic Parasitology (in press).Google Scholar
  20. Poinar, G. O. Jr, & Sanders, R. D. (1974). Description and bionomics of Octomyomermis troglodytis sp. n. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing the western treehole mosquito Aedes sierrensis (Ludlow) (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 41, 37–41.Google Scholar
  21. Poinar, G. O. Jr, & Welch. H. E. (1968). A new nematode, Filipjevimermis leipiandra sp. n. (Mermithidae), parasitic in Chrysomelid larvae (Coleoptera). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 12, 259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rutherford, T. A., & Webster, J. M. (1974). Transcuticular uptake of glucose by the entomophilic nematode, Mermis nigrescens. Journal of Parasitology, 60, 804–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tang, Y., Hominick, W. M., Killick-Kendrick, R., Killick-Kendrick, M., & Page, A. M. (1993). Didilia ooglypta n. gen., n. sp. (Tetradonematidae: Mermithoidea: Nematoda), a parasite of phlebotomine sandflies in Afghanistan. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 16, 325–331.Google Scholar
  24. van Waerebeke, D., & Remillet, M. (1973). Morphologie et biologie de Heterogonema ovomasculis n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae) parasite de Nitidulidae (Coleoptera). Nematologica, 19, 80–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yanoviak, S. P., Dudley, R., & Kaspari, M. (2005). Directed aerial descent in canopy ants. Nature, 433, 624-626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zervos, S. (1980). Bispiculum inaequale n. gen. & sp. (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae) from New Zealand wood-boring beetles (Curculionidae: Platypodinae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 7, 155–164.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Medical Entomology LaboratoryUniversity of FloridaVero BeachUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of Arkansas at Little RockLittle RockUSA

Personalised recommendations