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Phylogeny, evolution and biogeography of the Quadrifoliovariinae Yamaguti, 1965 (Digenea: Lecithasteridae)

Abstract

The Quadrifoliovariinae is revised and three new species of Quadrifoliovarium Yamaguit, 1965 from acanthurid fishes of the genus Naso from waters of the Indo-Pacific are described: Q, maceria n. sp. from N.␣tonganus, N. annulatus, N. fageni and N. brevirostris; Q. simplex n. sp. from N. tonganus and N.␣annulatus; and Q. quattuordecim n. sp. from N. tonganus. Amendments are made to the characterisation of the Quadrifoliovariinae, Quadrifoliovarium, Bilacinia Manter, 1969 and Unilacinia Manter, 1969 in light of observations on type and new material. A molecular phylogeny based on ITS2 and 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA is proposed. The phylogeny suggests that U. asymmetrica is the most basal taxon and Q.␣simplex n. sp. and Q. quattuordecim n. sp. the most derived. Evolution of morphological traits within the Quadrifoliovariinae are discussed in light of the molecular phylogeny. Molecular sequences of the ITS2 rDNA were identical between specimens of Q. pritchardae collected off Exmouth (Indian Ocean), Heron Island and Lizard Island (Western Pacific) and Moorea (far Eastern Indo-Pacific), indicating a broad Indo-Pacific distribution. All members of the subfamily are recorded only from the acanthurid genus Naso, with the exception of B. lobatum (Yamaguti, 1970), which has been recorded from a pomacanthid. The restricted host range of the group is discussed in the light of the phylogeny of the host genus Naso.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge The University of Queensland for facilities and support for the duration of this research. We also acknowledge the staff and management of the research stations of Lizard Island and Heron Island, Australia and Moorea, French Polynesia, for provision of facilities and equipment to make this research possible. Special thanks go to those who aided in collection of material. The principle author was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award.

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Correspondence to Clinton B. Chambers.

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Chambers, C.B., Cribb, T.H. Phylogeny, evolution and biogeography of the Quadrifoliovariinae Yamaguti, 1965 (Digenea: Lecithasteridae). Syst Parasitol 63, 59–80 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-005-9007-5

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Keywords

  • Seminal Vesicle
  • Ventral Sucker
  • Oral Sucker
  • Excretory Pore
  • Ejaculatory Duct