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Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 157–171 | Cite as

Evidence for a new species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845: morphological description and genetic relationships between congeners (Nematoda: Anisakidae)

  • Simonetta Mattiucci
  • Giuseppe Nascetti
  • Murray Dailey
  • Stephen C. Webb
  • Nelio B. Barros
  • Rossella Cianchi
  • Luciano Bullini
Article

Abstract

In the present study, a new biological species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845, was detected in Kogia breviceps and K. sima from West Atlantic waters (coast of Florida) on the basis of 19 (nuclear) structural genes studied by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis. Fixed allele differences at 11 enzyme loci were found between specimens of both adults and larvae of the new species and the other Anisakis spp. tested. Reproductive isolation from A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968 was demonstrated by the lack of hybrid or recombinant genotypes in mixed infections in K. breviceps. Genetic distance of the new species from its closest relative, A. brevispiculata, was D Nei =0.79. The new species is morphologically different from the other species which have been genetically characterised and from the other Anisakis retained by Davey (1971) as valid or as species inquirendae: the name of Anisakis paggiae n. sp. is proposed for the new taxon. Anisakis Type II larvae (sensu Berland, 1961) from the European hake Merluccius merluccius in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean (Galician coast) and from the scabbard fish Aphanopus carbo in Central Atlantic waters (off Madeira), were identified as A. paggiae n. sp. Its genetic relationships with respect to the seven species previously characterised (A. simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto), A. pegreffii Campana-Rouget & Biocca, 1955, A. simplex, (A. typica (Diesing, 1860), A. ziphidarum Paggi et al., 1998, A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 and A. brevispiculata) were also inferred. Overall, a low genetic identity was detected at allozyme level between the eight Anisakis species. Interspecific genetic identity ranged from I Nei =0.68, between the sibling species of the A. simplex complex, to I Nei =0.00 (no alleles shared at the considered loci) when A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata and the new species were compared with the other species of the genus. Concordant topologies were obtained using both UPGMA and NJ tree analyses for the considered species. In both analyses, A. paggiae n. sp. clustered with A. brevispiculata. They also indciated two main clades, the first including A. physeteris, A. brevispiculata and A. paggiae n. sp., the second containing all of the remaining species (i.e. A. simplex (s.s.), A. pegreffii, A. simplex, A. typica and A. ziphidarum). A deep separation between these two main Anisakis clades, also supported by high bootstrap values at the major nodes, was apparent. This is also supported by differences in adult and larval morphology, as well as with respect to their main definitive hosts. A morphological key for distinguishing adult A. paggiae n. sp., A. physeteris and A. brevispiculata is presented. Allozyme markers for the identification of any life-history stage of the Anisakis spp. so far studied, as well as ecological data on their definitive host preferences and geographical distribution, are updated.

Keywords

Definitive Host Atlantic Water Genetic Identity Galician Coast Merluccius Merluccius 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simonetta Mattiucci
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Nascetti
    • 2
  • Murray Dailey
    • 3
  • Stephen C. Webb
    • 4
  • Nelio B. Barros
    • 5
  • Rossella Cianchi
    • 6
  • Luciano Bullini
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Public Health SciencesSection of Parasitology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Sustainable Economic Development (DECOS)Tuscia University, Via San Giovanni DecollatoViterboItaly
  3. 3.The Marine Mammal CentreSausalitoCaliforniaUSA
  4. 4.Cawthron InstituteNelsonNew Zealand
  5. 5.Center for Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle ResearchMote Marine LaboratoryFloridaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Genetics and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via dei SardiRomeItaly

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