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Synthese

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An argument against global no miracles arguments

  • Florian J. BogeEmail author
Article
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Abstract

Howson famously argues that the no-miracles argument, stating that the success of science indicates the approximate truth of scientific theories, is a base rate fallacy: it neglects the possibility of an overall low rate of true scientific theories. Recently a number of authors has suggested that the corresponding probabilistic reconstruction is unjust, as it concerns only the success of one isolated theory. Dawid and Hartmann, in particular, suggest to use the frequency of success in some field of research \(\mathcal {R}\) to infer a probability of truth for a new theory from \(\mathcal {R}\). I here shed doubts on the justification of this and similar moves and suggest a way to directly bound the probability of truth. As I will demonstrate, my bound can become incompatible with the assumption specific testing and Dawid and Hartmann’s estimate for success.

Keywords

Base rate fallacy No miracles argument Scientific realism Inductive skepticism 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Florian Fischer for getting me interested in the base rate fallacy, Michael Stöltzner for critical input at an earlier stage, Radin Dardashti for helpful advice on references and some discussion on the subject, and a number of anonymous referees for helpful comments on earlier versions.

Funding

A significant part of the research for this paper was conducted during my employment with the research unit The Epistemology of the Large Hadron Collider, funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) (Grant FOR 2063).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies (IZWT)Bergische Universität WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and CosmologyRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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