, Volume 190, Issue 10, pp 1753–1770

A logic for epistemic two-dimensional semantics


DOI: 10.1007/s11229-013-0260-x

Cite this article as:
Fritz, P. Synthese (2013) 190: 1753. doi:10.1007/s11229-013-0260-x


Epistemic two-dimensional semantics is a theory in the philosophy of language that provides an account of meaning which is sensitive to the distinction between necessity and apriority. While this theory is usually presented in an informal manner, I take some steps in formalizing it in this paper. To do so, I define a semantics for a propositional modal logic with operators for the modalities of necessity, actuality, and apriority that captures the relevant ideas of epistemic two-dimensional semantics. I also describe some properties of the logic that are interesting from a philosophical perspective, and apply it to the so-called nesting problem.


Two-dimensional semantics Modal logic Nesting problem  Necessity Apriority Actuality 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PhilosophyUniversity of Oxford, Jesus CollegeOxfordUK

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