Children’s strategy use when playing strategic games
- 435 Downloads
Strategic games require reasoning about other people’s and one’s own beliefs or intentions. Although they have clear commonalities with psychological tests of theory of mind, they are not clearly related to theory of mind tests for children between 9 and 10 years of age “Flobbe et al. J Logic Language Inform 17(4):417–442 (2008)”. We studied children’s (5–12 years of age) individual differences in how they played a strategic game by analyzing the strategies that they applied in a zero, first, and second-order reasoning task. For the zero-order task, we found two subgroups with different accuracy levels. For the first-order task, subgroups of children applied different suboptimal strategies or an optimal strategy. For the second-order task only suboptimal strategies were present. Strategy use for all tasks was related to age. The 5- and 6-year old children were additionally tested on theory of mind understanding and executive functioning. Strategy-use in these children was related to working memory, but not to theory of mind after correction for age, verbal ability and general IQ.
KeywordsStrategic games Child development Reasoning Theory of mind Strategy analysis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ericsson, K. A. (2006). The influence of experience and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance. In The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Gierasimczuk, N., van der Maas, H. L. J. & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2012). Logical and psychological analysis of deductive mastermind. In Proceedings of the 24th European summer school in logic, language and information, ESSLLI 2012 (pp. 1–13). Opole: ESSLLI.Google Scholar
- McCutcheon A.L. (1987) Latent class analysis. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
- Meijering, B., van Rijn, H., Taatgen, N. & Verbrugge, R. (2011). Second-order theory of mind in strategic games is not that difficult. In Proceedings of the cognitive science society (pp. 2486–2491). Austin: Cognitive Science Society.Google Scholar
- Muris P., Steerneman P., Meesters C., Merckelbach H., Horselenberg R., van den Hogen T., van Dongen L. (1999) The TOM test: A new instrument for assessing theory of mind in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29: 67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Verhoeven, L., & Vermeer, A. (2006). Verantwoording Taaltoets Alle Kinderen (TAK). Arnhem: Centraal Instituut voor Toetsontwikkeling.Google Scholar
- Visser I., Speekenbrink M. (2010) DepmixS4?: An R package for hidden Markov models. Journal of Statistical Software 36(7): 1–21Google Scholar