TCR: a trustworthy and churn-resilient academic distribution and retrieval system in P2P networks


As the number of people using the internet has surged over the past few years, more and more people are choosing to share and retrieve information online. There are several decentralized retrieval applications that provide file-sharing platforms for exactly this purpose. However, these applications cannot guarantee churn resilience, trustworthiness, or low cost of retrieval. Therefore, in this paper, we present a system called trustworthy and churn-resilient academic distribution and retrieval system in P2P networks, or TCR, which: (1) ensures that information will not be centralized by central network administrators; (2) utilizes LSH to classify nodes with similar research topics into a local subnetwork, and applies routing algorithms with trust score equations to determine the next trustworthy node to forward the message, thus ensuring each node can accurately and efficiently find its trustworthy nodes within only a few hops; (3) provides a trustworthy management system that itself deals in trustworthiness, ensuring that even when there is a large proportion of malicious nodes, the system can still detect and punish misbehaving nodes; (4) guarantees that nodes can still retrieve the desired files even when in high-churn networks. We finally demonstrate that our TCR entails low message costs, provides high match rates, detects malicious nodes, and ensures churn resilience and search efficiency when compared to other P2P retrieval systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16


  1. 1.

    Afergan MM, Leighton FT, Parikh JG (2012) Hybrid content delivery network (CDN) and peer-to-peer (P2P) network, December 11 2012. US Patent 8,332,484

  2. 2.

    Ali I, Chang RY, Hsu C-H (2018) Soqas: distributively finding high-quality answerers in dynamic social networks. IEEE Access 6:55074–55089

  3. 3.

    Andoni A, Indyk P (2006) Near-optimal hashing algorithms for near neighbor problem in high dimensions. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Foundations of Computer Science, pp 459–468

  4. 4.

    Andoni A, Indyk P (2008) Near-optimal hashing algorithms for approximate nearest neighbor in high dimensions. Commun ACM 51(1):117

  5. 5.

    Beck R, Avital M, Rossi M, Thatcher JB (2017) Blockchain technology in business and information systems research. Bus Inf Syst Eng 59:381.

  6. 6.

    Bianchi S, Felber P, Gradinariu M (2007) Content-based publish/subscribe using distributed r-trees. In: Proceedings of Euro-Par, pp 537–548, Rennes, France, August 2007

  7. 7.

    Buhler J, Tompa M (2002) Finding motifs using random projections. J Comput Biol 9(2):225–242

  8. 8.

    Cai Z, Lee I, Chu S-C, Huang X (2019) SimSim: a service discovery method preserving content similarity and spatial similarity in P2P mobile cloud. J Grid Comput 17(1):79–95

  9. 9.

    Cebe M, Akkaya K (2019) Efficient certificate revocation management schemes for iot-based advanced metering infrastructures in smart cities. Ad Hoc Netw 92:101801

  10. 10.

    Choffnes DR, Bustamante FE (2008) Taming the torrent: a practical approach to reducing cross-isp traffic in peer-to-peer systems. In: ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol 38. ACM, pp 363–374

  11. 11.

    Clarke I, Sandberg O, Wiley B, Hong T (2001) Freenet: a distributed anonymous information storage and retrieval system. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Design Issues in Anonymity and Unobservability, pp 46–66, Berkeley, CA, July 2001

  12. 12.

    Clayton R, Murdoch SJ, Watson RNM (2006) Ignoring the great firewall of china. In: International Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies. Springer, pp 20–35

  13. 13.

    Cohen E, Datar M, Fujiwara S, Gionis A, Indyk P, Motwani R, Ullman JD, Yang C (2001) Finding interesting associations without support pruning. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng 13(1):64–78

  14. 14.

    Disterhoft A, Graffi K (2015) Protected chords in the web: secure P2P framework for decentralized online social networks. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P). IEEE, pp 1–5

  15. 15.

    Du Q, Liu M, Xu Q, Song H, Sun L, Ren P (2017) Interference-constrained routing over P2P-share enabled multi-hop D2D networks. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 10(6):1354–1370

  16. 16.

    Durmaz O, Bilge HS (2019) Fast image similarity search by distributed locality sensitive hashing. Pattern Recognit Lett 128:361–369

  17. 17.

    Ekbatanifard G, Yousefi O (2019) A novel trust management model in the social internet of things. J Adv Comput Eng Technol 5(2):57–70

  18. 18.

    Ferreira RA, Ramanathan MK, Awan A, Grama A, Jagannathan S (2005) Search with probabilistic guarantees in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. In: Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, pp 165–172, Konstanz, Germany, August 2005

  19. 19.

    Fiat A, Saia J (2002) Censorship resistant peer-to-peer content addressable networks. In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, pp 94–103

  20. 20.

    Georgescu B, Shimshoni I, Meer P (2003) Mean shift based clustering in high dimensions: a texture classification example. In: ICCV, vol 3, p 456

  21. 21.

    Gharib M, Malekimajd M, Movaghar A (2018) Slopcloud: an efficient solution for locality problem in peer-to-peer cloud systems. Algorithms 11(10):150

  22. 22.

    Gibson MS, Vasconcelos WW (2019) A knowledge-based approach to multiplayer games in peer-to-peer networks. Knowl Inf Syst 61(2):1091–1121

  23. 23.

    Gkantsidis C, Mihail M, Saberi A (2006) Random walks in peer-to-peer networks: algorithms and evaluation. Perform Eval 63(3):241–263

  24. 24.

    Gupta A, Sahin O, Agrawal D, El Abbadi A (2004) Meghdoot: content-based publish/subscribe over P2P networks. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Conference on Middleware, pp 254–273, Toronto, Canada, October 2004

  25. 25.

    Haveliwala T, Gionis A, Indyk P (2000) Scalable techniques for clustering the web (extended abstract). In: Third international workshop on the web and databases (WebDB 2000), May 18–19, 2000, Dallas, Texas

  26. 26.

    He S, Tang Q, Wu CQ, Shen X (2020) Decentralizing IoT management systems using blockchain for censorship resistance. IEEE Trans Ind Inform 16(1):715–727.

  27. 27.

    Herrera O, Znati T (2007) Modeling churn in P2P networks. In: 40th Annual Simulation Symposium (ANSS’07). IEEE, pp 33–40

  28. 28.

    Herrmann M, Zhang R, Ning K-C, Diaz C, Preneel B (2014) Censorship-resistant and privacy-preserving distributed web search. In: 14-th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing. IEEE, pp 1–10

  29. 29.

    Ho JC, Zhang Q, Lee C-S (2011) Google’s retreat from china: two competing theories. In: 2011 Proceedings of PICMET’11: Technology Management in the Energy Smart World (PICMET). IEEE, pp 1–8

  30. 30.

    Hunt A, Pon D, Kiernan C, Adams B, Edgeworth J, Manousos E, Linn J (2016) Using hash signatures of DOM objects to identify website similarity, July 5 2016. US Patent 9,386,037

  31. 31.

    Isdal T, Piatek M, Krishnamurthy A, Anderson T (2010) Privacy preserving P2P data sharing with OneSwarm. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference, pp 111–122, New Delhi, India, September 2010

  32. 32.

    Jia S, Zhang R, Jiang S, Zhang M (2017) A novel video sharing solution based on demand-aware resource caching optimization in wireless mobile networks. Mob Inf Syst 2017:3725898.

  33. 33.

    Kamvar SD, Schlosser MT, Garcia-Molina H (2003) The eigentrust algorithm for reputation management in P2P networks. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on World Wide Web. ACM, pp 640–651

  34. 34.

    Konforty D, Adam Y, Estrada D, Meredith LG (2015) Synereo: the decentralized and distributed social network

  35. 35.

    Lei J, Fu X (2009) Interest-based peer-to-peer group management. In: International Workshop on Future Multimedia Networking. Springer, pp 107–118

  36. 36.

    Li Y, Shou L, Tan K-L (2008) Cyber: a community-based search engine. In: 2008 Eighth International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing. IEEE, pp 215–224

  37. 37.

    Liu Y, Xiao L, Ni L (2007) Building a scalable bipartite P2P overlay network. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 18(9):1296–1306

  38. 38.

    Lu K, Wang J, Xie L, Zhen Q, Li M (2016) An eigentrust-based hybrid trust model in P2P file sharing networks. Procedia Comput Sci 94:366–371

  39. 39.

    Ma Y, Wang D (2016) A novel trust model for P2P networks. In: 2016 12th International Conference on Natural Computation, Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (ICNC-FSKD). IEEE, pp 1969–1973

  40. 40.

    Marti S, Ganesan P, Garcia-Molina H (2004) Sprout: P2P routing with social networks. In: International Conference on Extending Database Technology. Springer, pp 425–435

  41. 41.

    Maurya A, Singh MP (2016) Trust evaluation on social media based on different similarity metrics. Int J Database Theory Appl 9(12):101–110

  42. 42.

    Meng X (2018) A churn-aware durable data storage scheme in hybrid P2P networks. J Supercomput 74(1):183–204

  43. 43.

    Meng X (2018) Speedtrust: a super peer-guaranteed trust model in hybrid P2P networks. J Supercomput 74(6):2553–2580

  44. 44.

    Meng X, Chen X, Ding Y (2013) Using the complementary nature of node joining and leaving to handle churn problem in P2P networks. Comput Electr Eng 39(2):326–337

  45. 45.

    Meng X, Jin J (2016) A free rider aware topological construction strategy for search in unstructured P2P networks. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 9(1):127–141

  46. 46.

    Meng X, Liu D (2016) Getrust: a guarantee-based trust model in chord-based P2P networks. IEEE Trans Dependable Secur Comput 15(1):54–68

  47. 47.

    Meng X, Liu D (2018) Getrust: a guarantee-based trust model in chord-based P2P networks. IEEE Trans Dependable Secur Comput 15(1):54–68

  48. 48.

    Mischke J, Stiller B (2004) A methodology for the design of distributed search in P2P middleware. IEEE Netw 18(1):30–37

  49. 49.

    Naghizadeh A, Razeghi B, Meamari E, Hatamian M, Atani RE (2016) C-trust: a trust management system to improve fairness on circular P2P networks. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 9(6):1128–1144

  50. 50.

    Nallakannu SM, Thiagarajan R (2016) PSO-based optimal peer selection approach for highly secure and trusted P2P system. Secur Commun Netw 9(13):2186–2199

  51. 51.

    Nitti M, Girau R, Atzori L (2014) Trustworthiness management in the social internet of things. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng 26(5):1253–1266

  52. 52.

    Norta A (2016) Designing a smart-contract application layer for transacting decentralized autonomous organizations. In: International Conference on Advances in Computing and Data Sciences. Springer, pp 595–604

  53. 53.

    Ouyang Z, Memon N, Suel T, Trendafilov D (2002) Cluster-based delta compression of a collection of files. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, 2002. WISE 2002. IEEE, pp 257–266

  54. 54.

    Pappu A, Stent A (2017) Location-based recommendations using nearest neighbors in a locality sensitive hashing (LSH) index, May 25 2017. US Patent App. 14/948,213

  55. 55.

    Park S, Cha B, Chung K, Kim J (2019) Mobile IoT device summarizer using P2P web search engine and inherent characteristic of contents. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl.

  56. 56.

    Rajaraman A, Ullman JD (2011) Mining of Massive Datasets. Cambridge University Press, USA

  57. 57.

    Rhea S, Geels D, Roscoe T, Kubiatowicz J et al (2004) Handling churn in a DHT. In: Proceedings of the USENIX Annual Technical Conference, vol 6. Boston, MA, USA, pp 127–140

  58. 58.

    Risson J, Moors T (2006) Survey of research towards robust peer-to-peer networks: search methods. Comput Netw Int J Comput Telecommun Netw 50(17):3485–3521

  59. 59.

    Rowstron A, Druschel P (2001) Pastry: scalable, decentralized object location, and routing for large-scale peer-to-peer systems. In: Proceedings of the 2001 IFIP/ACM International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms, pp 329–350, Heidelberg, Germany, November 2001

  60. 60.

    Sasovova Z, Mehra A, Borgatti SP, Schippers MC (2010) Network churn: the effects of self-monitoring personality on brokerage dynamics. Adm Sci Q 55(4):639–670

  61. 61.

    Seddiki M, Benchaiba M (2016) 2p-lookup: popularity and proximity based P2P lookup mechanism over manets. J Netw Comput Appl 71:181–193

  62. 62.

    Šešum-Čavić V, Kuehn E, Zischka S (2018) Swarm-inspired routing algorithms for unstructured P2P networks. Int J Swarm Intell Res 9(3):23–63

  63. 63.

    Shah N, Ahmad A, Nazir B, Qian D (2016) A cross-layer approach for partition detection at overlay layer for structured P2P in manets. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 9(2):356–371

  64. 64.

    Shah V, De Veciana G, Kesidis G (2016) A stable approach for routing queries in unstructured P2P networks. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw TON 24(5):3136–3147

  65. 65.

    Shen F, Zhang Z (2018) Do circumvention tools promote democratic values? Exploring the correlates of anticensorship technology adoption in China. J Inf Technol Politics 15(2):106–121

  66. 66.

    Shen H, Li Z, Chen K (2015) Social-P2P: an online social network based P2P file sharing system. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 26(10):2874–2889

  67. 67.

    Shen H, Liu AX, Liu G, Zhao L (2015) Freeweb: P2P-assisted collaborative censorship-resistant web browsing. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 27(11):3226–3241

  68. 68.

    Shiau SJH, Huang Y-C, Yen C-H, Tsai Y-C, Sun C-K, Juang J-N, Huang C-Y, Huang C-C, Huang S-K (2019) A novel massive deployment solution based on the peer-to-peer protocol. Appl Sci 9(2):296

  69. 69.

    Singh SK, Kumar C, Nath P (2019) Local contribution (LC) and trustworthiness factors to induce fairness in P2P networks. Wirel Pers Commun 107:303.

  70. 70.

    Stoica I, Morris R, Karger D, Kaashoek MF, Balakrishnan H (2001) Chord: a scalable peer-to-peer lookup service for Internet applications. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures and Protocols for Computer Communications, pp 149–160, San Diego, CA, August 2001

  71. 71.

    Stutzbach D, Rejaie R (2006) Understanding churn in peer-to-peer networks. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement. ACM, pp 189–202

  72. 72.

    Sun SY, Yao WB, Li XY (2019) Sord: a new strategy of online replica deduplication in cloud-P2P. Clust Comput 22(1):1–23

  73. 73.

    Terelius H, Johansson KH (2018) Peer-to-peer gradient topologies in networks with churn. IEEE Trans Control Netw Syst 5(4):2085–2095

  74. 74.

    Terpstra WW, Kangasharju J, Leng C, Buchmann AP (2007) Bubblestorm: resilient, probabilistic, and exhaustive peer-to-peer search. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures and Protocols for Computer Communications, pp 49–60, Kyoto, Japan, August 2007

  75. 75.

    Tran DA, Pham C (2010) Enabling content-based publish/subscribe services in cooperative P2P networks. Comput Netw Int J Comput Telecommun Netw 52(11):1739–1749

  76. 76.

    Trifa Z, Khemakhem M (2016) A novel replication technique to attenuate churn effects. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 9(2):344–355

  77. 77.

    Tschantz MC, Afroz S, Sajid S, Qazi SA, Javed M, Paxson V (2018) A bestiary of blocking: the motivations and modes behind website unavailability. In: 8th \(\{\)USENIX\(\}\) Workshop on Free and Open Communications on the Internet (\(\{\)FOCI\(\}\) 18)

  78. 78.

    Tsoumakos D, Roussopoulos N (2003) A comparison of peer-to-peer search methods. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on the Web and Databases, pp 61–66, San Diego, CA, June 2003

  79. 79.

    Vimal S, Srivatsa SK (2019) A file sharing system in peer-to-peer network by a nearness-sensible method. Int J Reason Based Intell Syst 11(4):293–299

  80. 80.

    Wong B, Guha S (2008) Quasar: a probabilistic publish-subscribe system for social networks. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Peer-To-Peer Systems, Tampa Bay, FL, February 2008

  81. 81.

    Wu J, Shen L, Liu L (2019) LSH-based distributed similarity indexing with load balancing in high-dimensional space. J Supercomput.

  82. 82.

    Xiao Y, Liu Y (2019) Bayestrust and vehiclerank: constructing an implicit web of trust in vanet. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 68(3):2850–2864

  83. 83.

    Xie H, Yang YR, Krishnamurthy A, Liu YG, Silberschatz A (2008) P4P: provider portal for applications. ACM SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 38(4):351–362

  84. 84.

    Xiong L, Liu L (2004) Peertrust: supporting reputation-based trust for peer-to-peer electronic communities. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng 16(7):843–857

  85. 85.

    Xue H, You J, Wang J (2019) Churn resilience of distributed content service system on smart terminals network. In: 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). IEEE, pp 460–466

  86. 86.

    Yadav TK, Sinha A, Gosain D, Sharma PK, Chakravarty S (2018) Where the light gets in: analyzing web censorship mechanisms in india. In: Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference 2018. ACM, pp 252–264

  87. 87.

    Yan B, Yu J, Yang M, Jiang H, Wan Z, Ni L (2019) A novel distributed social internet of things service recommendation scheme based on LSH forest. Pers Ubiquitous Comput.

  88. 88.

    Yan Y, Zhang J, Ma X (2019) Modeling of agent-based complex network to detect the trust of investors in P2P platform. Int J Intell Inf Technol 15(2):20–31

  89. 89.

    Yuan B, Liu L, Antonopoulos N (2018) Efficient service discovery in decentralized online social networks. Future Gener Comput Syst 86:775–791

  90. 90.

    Zghaibeh M, Ul Hassan N (2017) Sham: scalable homogeneous addressing mechanism for structured P2P networks. EURASIP J Wirel Commun Netw 2017(1):161

  91. 91.

    Zghaibeh M, Ul Hassan N (2018) d-SHAM: a constant degree-scalable homogeneous addressing mechanism for structured P2P networks. IEEE Access 6:12483–12492

  92. 92.

    Zhang R, Charlie Hu Y (2007) Assisted peer-to-peer search with partial indexing. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 18(8):1146–1158

  93. 93.

    Zhao BY, Huang L, Stribling J, Rhea SC, Joseph AD, Kubiatowicz JD (2004) Tapestry: a resilient global-scale overlay for service deployment. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 22(1):41–53

  94. 94.

    Zhou R, Hwang K, Cai M (2008) Gossiptrust for fast reputation aggregation in peer-to-peer networks. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng 20(9):1282–1295

  95. 95.

    Zuo M, Zhang X, Liu Q (2008) The development of search engine in China and its problems revealed in net information retrieval. In: 2008 International Symposiums on Information Processing. IEEE, pp 292–296

Download references


This research is supported by MOST 106-2410-H-009-063-MY2 and MOST 108-2410-H-009-057 of Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

Author information

Correspondence to Yung-Ting Chuang.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chuang, Y., Li, F. TCR: a trustworthy and churn-resilient academic distribution and retrieval system in P2P networks. J Supercomput (2020).

Download citation


  • Peer-to-peer
  • Distributed search and retrieval
  • Network churn
  • Trustworthy management