Parallel simulation model for heat and moisture transfer of clothed human body

  • Nan Jia
  • Yuan Huang
  • Jiapei Li
  • Haigang An
  • Xiaomin Jia
  • Ruomei WangEmail author


The heat and moisture transfer performance in clothed human body affects human life quality (e.g., comfort and health) directly. Accurate modeling and highly efficient simulation of the heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in clothed human body is helpful to enhance the human life quality. In this paper, we first describe a heat and moisture transfer simulation model of clothed human body, which comprises the George Fu’s human thermal physiological model and a 3D heat and moisture transfer model in clothing, and the thermoregulation behaviors as well as the heat transfer mechanisms are taken into consideration. Then according to the physiological and geometrical features of human body, a parallel algorithm for the heat and moisture transfer simulation in clothed human body is proposed. The SPMD framework has been utilized for data parallel. At last, case studies with different environment scenes are presented. The visual simulated results are displayed, and the parallel performance is discussed.


Heat and moisture transfer Parallel simulation Single program multiple data (SPMD) 

List of symbols

\(\rho _{\mathrm{t}}\)

Tissue density

\(\rho _{\mathrm{b}}\)

Blood density

\(\mu \)

Blood viscosity

\(\varepsilon \)

Porosity of the fabric

\(\varepsilon _{\mathrm{a}}\)

Volume fraction of water vapor

\(\varepsilon _{\mathrm{l}}\)

Volume fraction of liquid phase

\(\varepsilon _{\mathrm{f}}\)

Volume fraction of fibers

\(\lambda _{\mathrm{v}}\)

Heat of sorption or desorption of vapor by fibers

\(\lambda _{\mathrm{l}}\)

Heat of sorption or desorption of liquid by fibers

\(\varGamma _{\mathrm{f}}\)

Effective sorption rate of the moisture

\(\varGamma _{\mathrm{lg}}\)

Evaporation/condensation rate of the liquid/vapor

\(\varGamma _{\mathrm{R}}\)

Heat radiation

\(\tau _{\mathrm{a}}\)

Effective tortuosity of the fabric for water vapor diffusion

\(\tau _\mathrm{l}\)

Effective tortuosity of the fabric for liquid water diffusion

\(\xi _1\)

Proportions of moisture sorption at fiber surface covered by water vapor

\(\xi _2\)

Proportions of moisture sorption at fiber surface covered by liquid water

\(\rho _\mathrm{l}\)

Density of the liquid water

\(\kappa _1\)

Transfer proportions of water vapor

\(\kappa _2\)

Transfer proportions of liquid water


Heat capacity of the tissue


Heat capacity of the blood


Heat carried into the tissue by capillary blood


Metabolic heat generation


Heat transfer between tissue and arterial blood flow


Heat transfer between tissue and venous blood flow


Heat transfer between tissue and blood, it equals \(q_\mathrm{a}\) or \(q_\mathrm{v}\)


Heat transfer between tissue and respiratory tract


Temperature of the fabric


Radius of blood vessel


Mean blood velocity in the blood vessel


Air velocity in the respiratory tract


Temperature of the fabric


Cross-sectional area of large blood vessel


Cross-sectional area of the respiratory tract


Tissue temperature


Blood temperature


Blood pressure


Humidity ratio for the air in the respiratory tract


Water vapor concentration in the air filling the inter-fiber void space


Saturated water vapor concentration in the air filling the inter-fiber void space


Volumetric heat capacity of the fabric


Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in the fibers of the fabric


Diffusion coefficient of liquid water in the fibers of the fabric


Effective thermal conductivity of the fabric


Temperature of the fabric


Proportions of moisture vapor heat loss from skin


Proportions of dry heat loss from skin


Heat conduction coefficient of air


Mass transfer coefficient


The evaporation heat loss of body tissue



We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61672547), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (No. 2015B010129008) and Doctoral Start-up Foundation of Hebei GEO University (No. BQ2018027). Ruomei Wang is the corresponding author.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Management Science and EngineeringHebei GEO UniversityShijiazhuangChina
  2. 2.School of Data and Computer ScienceSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.National Engineering Research Center of Digital LifeGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Second HospitalHebei Medical UniversityShijiazhuangChina

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