The Journal of Supercomputing

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 696–716 | Cite as

Efficient routing for dense UWSNs with high-speed mobile nodes using spherical divisions

  • Mohammad Reza KhosraviEmail author
  • Hamid Basri
  • Habib Rostami


Three major problems of wireless sensor networks can be summarized into communication traffic, energy consumption and routing security. In this paper, we analyze performance of an underwater sensor network in dense mode under creation of spherical division-based forbidden regions. Obviously, unnecessary smart node removal from the packet forwarding process of a flooding-based routing policy is theoretically an idea for enhancing the known network parameters. In this research, our purposed approach is to improve energy consumption by using a removal process over physical routing space toward more network reliability and better network lifetime. Clearly, our aim is performance improvement in terms of a network protocol in an underwater wireless sensor networks with a huge number of high-speed mobile nodes. The nodes generally consist of different underwater instruments such as sensors, robots, modems and batteries and are categorized into two groups of autonomous unmanned underwater vehicles and remotely operated vehicles. The proposed approach is a hybrid solution based on vector-based forwarding routing protocol and spherical divisions which is named spherical division-based vector-based forwarding. The proposed protocol can successfully reduce energy consumption and equivalently increase the network lifetime while packet delivery ratio is in a saturation level. In details, our proposed method works on preservation of sensors’ energy in which we physically remove some additional paths of routing process (based on a multipath forwarding using a basic routing algorithm). In this regard, we apply a spherical division-based physical restriction on the routing space. However, removing these additional sensor nodes/routers is conditionally done under keeping the suitable traffic performance in terms of PDR because it is essential to say that a new scheme is effective.


Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) Dense applications Spherical divisions (SD) Multipath distributed routing Spherical division-based vector-based forwarding (SD-VBF) 



The authors would like to thank the managing editor and also all reviewers for their reviews and helpful comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringShiraz University of TechnologyShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Computer EngineeringK. N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Computer Engineering Department, School of EngineeringPersian Gulf UniversityBushehrIran

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