The Journal of Supercomputing

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 782–809 | Cite as

Energy efficiency of VM consolidation in IaaS clouds

  • Fei Teng
  • Lei YuEmail author
  • Tianrui Li
  • Danting Deng
  • Frédéric Magoulès


The energy efficiency of cloud computing has recently attracted a great deal of attention. As a result of raised expectations, cloud providers such as Amazon and Microsoft have started to deploy a new IaaS service, a MapReduce-style virtual cluster, to process data-intensive workloads. Considering that the IaaS provider supports multiple pricing options, we study batch-oriented consolidation and online placement for reserved virtual machines (VMs) and on-demand VMs, respectively. For batch cases, we propose a DVFS-based heuristic TRP-FS to consolidate virtual clusters on physical servers to save energy while guarantee job SLAs. We prove the most efficient frequency that minimizes the energy consumption, and the upper bound of energy saving through DVFS techniques. More interestingly, this frequency only depends on the type of processor. FS can also be used in combination with other consolidation algorithms. For online cases, a time-balancing heuristic OTB is designed for on-demand placement, which can reduce the mode switching by means of balancing server duration and utilization. The experimental results both in simulation and using the Hadoop testbed show that our approach achieves greater energy savings than existing algorithms.


Cloud computing VM consolidation Energy efficiency DVFS MapReduce 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fei Teng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lei Yu
    • 3
    Email author
  • Tianrui Li
    • 1
  • Danting Deng
    • 1
  • Frédéric Magoulès
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Information Science and TechnologySouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory for Novel Software TechnologyNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Sino-French Engineering SchoolBeihang UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Ecole Centrale ParisGrande Voie des VignesChâtenay-MalabryFrance

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