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Compact network reconfiguration in fat-trees

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Abstract

In large high-performance computing systems, the probability of component failure is high. At the same time, for a sustained system performance, reconfiguration is often needed to ensure high utilization of available resources. Reconfiguration in interconnection networks, like InfiniBand (IB), typically involves computation and distribution of a new set of routes in order to maintain connectivity and performance. In general, current routing algorithms do not consider the existing routes in a network when calculating new ones. Such configuration-oblivious routing might result in substantial modifications to the existing paths, and the reconfiguration becomes costly as it potentially involves a large number of source–destination pairs. In this paper, we propose a novel routing algorithm for IB-based fat-tree topologies, SlimUpdate. SlimUpdate employs path preservation techniques to achieve a decrease of up to 80 % in the number of total path modifications, as compared to the OpenSM’s fat-tree routing algorithm, in most reconfiguration scenarios. Furthermore, we present a metabase-aided re-routing method for fat-trees, based on destination leaf-switch multipathing. Our proposed method significantly reduces network reconfiguration overhead, while providing greater routing flexibility. On successive runs, our proposed method saves up to 85 % of the total routing time over the traditional re-routing scheme. Based on the metabase-aided routing, we also present a modified SlimUpdate routing algorithm to dynamically optimize routes for a given MPI node order.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The OpenFabrics Enterprise Distribution (OFED) is the de facto standard software stack for deploying IB-based applications. http://openfabrics.org/.

  2. 2.

    Multi-homed nodes can be considered as distinct multiple nodes in the routing.

  3. 3.

    Available multipaths between leaf switches are different from switch-to-switch paths in the OpenSM’s fat-tree routing. The fat-tree routing algorithm uses single-path non-balanced switch-to-switch routing, as a relatively small amount of switch-to-switch traffic is anticipated.

  4. 4.

    The nodes connected to the same leaf switch have full bandwidth between them.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Mellanox Technologies for providing some of the hardware we use in our experiments.

Author information

Correspondence to Feroz Zahid.

Additional information

This work was supported by the Norwegian Research Council under the ERAC project (Project Number: 213283/O70).

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Zahid, F., Gran, E.G., Bogdański, B. et al. Compact network reconfiguration in fat-trees. J Supercomput 72, 4438–4467 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-016-1759-y

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Keywords

  • Routing algorithms
  • Interconnection networks
  • Network reconfiguration
  • Fat-trees
  • InfiniBand