The Journal of Supercomputing

, Volume 75, Issue 1, pp 4–19 | Cite as

VMBKS: a shared memory cache system based on booting kernel in cloud

  • Xiang Shi
  • Xiaofei LiaoEmail author
  • Dayang Zheng
  • Hai Jin
  • Haikun Liu


In Infrastructure-as-a-Service clouds, virtual machine provisioning time is an important metric for evaluating the quality of service (QoS) provided by the service providers. VM provisioning is usually time-consuming, especially when many VMs boot up simultaneously. We call such phenomenons “Boot Storm”. In practice, many VMs would run on a single compute node for higher resource utilization. This multiple VMs and single compute node scenario easily encounters Boot Storm. Boot Storm leads to extremely high latency of VM provisioning and badly affects user’s experience. In this paper, we propose VMBKS, which is a cloud shared memory cache system based on booting kernel. We exploit VMs’ correlations to organize VM image files, to reduce cache size and mitigate the effect of Boot Storm. We use booting kernel to construct cache and share the booting kernel to correlative VMs. Evaluation shows that VMBKS can speed up VM provisioning time by up to 60 % and mitigate the effect of Boot Storm significantly.


Boot Storm Booting kernel Cloud computing Shared memory cache VM provisioning 



This work was supported by National High-tech Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) under Grant No. 2012AA010905, China National Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 61322210, 61272408 and Natural Science Foundation of Hubei under Grant No. 2012FFA007. Xiaofei Liao is the corresponding author.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Eucalyptus. Accessed 13 Aug 2014
  3. 3.
    Opennebula: The open source toolkit for cloud computing. Accessed 13 Aug 2014
  4. 4.
    Radix tree. Accessed 4 Aug 2013
  5. 5.
    Vhd (file format). Accessed 4 Aug 2013
  6. 6.
    Barham P, Dragovic B, Fraser K, Hand S, Harris T, Ho A, Neugebauer R, Pratt I, Warfield A (2003) Xen and the art of virtualization. SIGOPS Oper Syst Rev 37(5):164–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen Z, Zhao Y, Miao X, Chen Y, Wang Q (2009) Rapid provisioning of cloud infrastructure leveraging peer-to-peer networks. In: Proceedings of the 2009 29th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, ICDCSW ’09, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, pp 324–329Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lagar-Cavilla HA, Whitney JA, Scannell AM, Patchin P, Rumble SM, de Lara E, Brudno M, Satyanarayanan M (2009) Snowflock: Rapid virtual machine cloning for cloud computing. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM European Conference on Computer Systems, EuroSys ’09, New York, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liao X, Li H, Jin H, Hou H, Jiang Y, Liu H (2011) VMStore: Distributed storage system for multiple virtual machines. Sci China F Inform Sci 54:1104–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McLoughlin M (2013) The qcow2 image format. Accessed 4 Aug
  11. 11.
    Nicolae B, Bresnahan J, Keahey K, Antoniu G (2011) Going back and forth: Efficient multideployment and multisnapshotting on clouds. In: Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, HPDC ’11, New York, 147–158Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nicolae B, Cappello F, Antoniu G (2011) Optimizing multi-deployment on clouds by means of self-adaptive prefetching. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Parallel Processing. vol Part I, Euro-Par’11. Springer-Verlag, Berlin pp 503–513Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Project N (2010) Lantorrent. Accessed 4 Aug 2013
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Razavi K, Ion A, Kielmann T (2014) Squirrel: Scatter hoarding vm image contents on iaas compute nodes. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Symposium on High-performance Parallel and Distributed Computing, HPDC ’14. ACM, New York, pp 265–278Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Razavi K, Kielmann T (2013) Scalable virtual machine deployment using vm image caches. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis, SC ’13. ACM, New York, 65:1–65:12Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reich J, Laadan O, Brosh E, Sherman A, Misra V, Nieh J, Rubenstein D (2012) Vmtorrent: Scalable p2p virtual machine streaming. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies, CoNEXT ’12. New York, NY, USA, ACM, pp 289–300Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shi L, Banikazemi M, Wang QB (2008) Iceberg: An image streamer for space and time efficient provisioning of virtual machines. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Parallel Processing - Workshops, ICPPW ’08, pages 31–38, Washington, DC, USA, IEEE Computer SocietyGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shi X, Liu C, Wu S, Jin H, Wu X, Deng L (2011) A cloud service cache system based on memory template of virtual machine. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Sixth Annual ChinaGrid Conference, CHINAGRID ’11. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, pp 168–173Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    The OpenStack project. Openstack cloud software., 2014. Accessed 13 Aug 2014
  21. 21.
    Zhu J, Jiang Z, Xiao Z (2011) Twinkle: A fast resource provisioning mechanism for internet services. In: INFOCOM, pages 802–810. IEEEGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiang Shi
    • 1
  • Xiaofei Liao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dayang Zheng
    • 1
  • Hai Jin
    • 1
  • Haikun Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Services Computing Technology and System Lab, Cluster and Grid Computing Lab, School of Computer Science and TechnologyHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations