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On-the-fly adaptive routing for dragonfly interconnection networks

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Abstract

Adaptive deadlock-free routing mechanisms are required to handle variable traffic patterns in dragonfly networks. However, distance-based deadlock avoidance mechanisms typically employed in Dragonflies increase the router cost and complexity as a function of the maximum allowed path length. This paper presents on-the-fly adaptive routing (OFAR), a routing/flow-control scheme that decouples the routing and the deadlock avoidance mechanisms. OFAR allows for in-transit adaptive routing with local and global misrouting, without imposing dependencies between virtual channels, and relying on a deadlock-free escape subnetwork to avoid deadlock. This model lowers latency, increases throughput, and adapts faster to transient traffic than previously proposed mechanisms. The low capacity of the escape subnetwork makes it prone to congestion. A simple congestion management mechanism based on injection restriction is considered to avoid such issues. Finally, reliability is considered by introducing mechanisms to find multiple edge-disjoint Hamiltonian rings embedded on the dragonfly, allowing to use multiple escape subnetworks.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    We do not consider the opposite case (switching to minimal after a first nonminimal local hop which corresponds to the global misrouting) because we model the MM+L global link selection policy [9] which does not make a first local hop for global misrouting at injection. However, since OFAR decouples the router resources and the path length, it would also support that case.

  2. 2.

    A minimum occupancy might be also required in the minimal queue to allow for misrouting; we have not considered such a threshold in this work.

  3. 3.

    We do not show results of ADVG+1 as it could be argued that the additional ring link between the source and destination groups favors the OFAR models. However, since the escape network utilization is only used to avoid potential deadlock situations and not to carry traffic to the destination, the results are similar.

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Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education, FPU grant AP2010-4900; the Spanish Science and Technology Commission (CICYT) under contracts TIN2010-21291-C02-02, TIN2012-34557 and TIN2013- 46957-C2-2-P; the European Union FP7 under Agreements ICT-288777 (Mont-Blanc) and ERC-321253 (RoMoL); the European HiPEAC Network of Excellence and the JSA no. 2013-119 as part of the IBM/BSC Technology Center for Supercomputing agreement.

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Correspondence to Enrique Vallejo.

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García, M., Vallejo, E., Beivide, R. et al. On-the-fly adaptive routing for dragonfly interconnection networks. J Supercomput 71, 1116–1142 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-014-1357-9

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Keywords

  • Interconnection network
  • Dragonfly network
  • OFAR
  • Adaptive routing
  • Deadlock avoidance