The Journal of Supercomputing

, Volume 68, Issue 2, pp 599–623 | Cite as

An efficient routing algorithm to preserve \(k\)-coverage in wireless sensor networks

  • Ali Ahmadi
  • Mohammad Shojafar
  • Seyede Fatemeh Hajeforosh
  • Mehdi Dehghan
  • Mukesh Singhal


One of the major challenges in the area of wireless sensor networks is simultaneously reducing energy consumption and increasing network lifetime. Efficient routing algorithms have received considerable attention in previous studies for achieving the required efficiency, but these methods do not pay close attention to coverage, which is one of the most important Quality of Service parameters in wireless sensor networks. Suitable route selection for transferring information received from the environment to the sink plays crucial role in the network lifetime. The proposed method tries to select an efficient route for transferring the information. This paper reviews efficient routing algorithms for preserving k-coverage in a sensor network and then proposes an effective technique for preserving k-coverage and the reliability of data with logical fault tolerance. It is assumed that the network nodes are aware of their residual energy and that of their neighbors. Sensors are first categorized into two groups, coverage and communicative nodes, and some are then re-categorized as clustering and dynamic nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides greater efficiency energy consumption.


Wireless sensor network Localization Energy-efficient routing Energy saving k-coverage Euclidean distance 


  1. 1.
    Akyildiz I, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E (2008) A survey on sensor networks. Comput Netw 52(12):2292–2330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pottie GJ, Kaiser WJ (2000) Wireless sensor networks. Commun ACM 43(5):51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Labrador MA, Wightman PM (2009) Topology control in wireless sensor networks. In Springer, Berlin ISBN: 978-1-40209589-9Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shojafar M, Pooranian Z, Shojafar M, Abraham A (2013) LLLA: New Efficient Channel Assignment Method in Wireless Mesh Networks. Springer International Publishing, Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications 237:143–152Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akyildiz IF, Melodia T, Chowdhurry KR (2007) A survey on wireless multimedia sensor networks. Comput Netw 51(4):921–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sayyad A, Ahmadi A, Shojafar M, Meybodi MR (2010) Improvement multiplicity of routs in directed diffusion by learning automata new approach in directed diffusion. In: International conference on computer technology and, development, pp 195–200Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sayyad A, Shojafar M, Delkhah Z, Ahamadi A (2011) Region directed diffusion in sensor network using learning automata: RDDLA. J Adv Comput Res 1(3):71–83Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sayyad A, Shojafar M, Delkhah Z, Meybodi MR (2010) Improving directed diffusion in sensor network using learning automata: ddla new approach in directed diffusion. In: 2nd International conference on computer technology and development (ICCTD 2010), pp 189–194Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ghosh A, Das SK (2008) Coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks: a survey. Pervasive Mobile Comput 4(1):303–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Younis M, Akkaya K (2008) Strategies and techniques for node placement in wireless sensor networks: a survey. Elsevier Ad Hoc Netw 6:621–655Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stojmenovic I, Lin X (2001) Loop-free hybrid single-path/flooding routing algorithms with guaranteed delivery for wireless networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 12(10):1045–9219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang S, Dai F, Cardei M, Wu J (2006) On connected multiple point coverage in wireless Sensor networks. J Wirel Inf NetwGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang Y, Tseng Y (2003) The coverage problem in a wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 2th ACM international conference on information proceedings in sensor networks and applications, pp 115–121Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benyuan L, Dousse O, Nain P, Towsley D (2013) Dynamic coverage of mobile sensor networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 24(2):301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li S, Kao HC (2010) Distributed K-coverage self-location estimation scheme based on Voronoi diagram. Commun IET 4(2):167–177CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    So AM, Ye Y (2005) On solving coverage problems in a wireless sensor network using Voronoi diagrams. In: Proceedings of workshop on internet and network economics, vol 3828, pp 584–593Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Okabe T, Boots B, Sugihara K, Chiu SN (2000) Spatial tessellations: concepts and applications of Voronoi diagrams. 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Powers RA (1995) Batteries for low power electronics. Proc IEEE 83(4):687–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shen CC, Srisathapornphat C, Jaikaeo C (2001) Sensor information networking architecture and applications. IEEE Pers Commun 8(4):52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Howard A, Mataric M, Sukhatme G (2002) Mobile sensor network deployment using potential fields: a distributed, scalable solution to the area coverage problem. In: Distributed autonomous robotic systems, vol 5. Springer, Berlin, pp 299–308Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hefeeda M, Bagheri M (2007) Randomized K-Coverage algorithms for dense sensor networks. In: Proceedings of 26th IEEE international conference on communications pp 2376–2380Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nath S, Gibbons PB (2007) Communicating via fireflies: geographic routing on duty-cycled sensors. In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on information proceedings in sensor, networks, pp 440–449Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anastasi G, Conti M, Francesco MD, Passarella A (2009) Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: a survey. Ad Hoc Netw 7(3):537–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang L, Xiao Y (2006) A survey of energy-efficient scheduling mechanism in sensor networks. Mobile Netw Appl 11(5):723–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chakrabarty K, Iyengar S, Qi H, Cho E (2002) Grid coverage for surveillance and target location in distributed sensor networks. IEEE Trans Comput 51(12):1448–1453CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jin Yu, Jian P, Zhousi W, LinYa P (2009) A survey on position-based routing algorithms in wireless sensor networks. Algorithms 2(1):158–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xing G, Wang W, Zhang Y, Lu C, Pless R, Gill C (2005) Integrated coverage and connectivity configuration in wireless sensor networks. ACM Trans Sensor Netw (TOSN) 1(1)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ilyas M, Mahgoub I (2005) Handbook of sensor networks: compact wireless and wired sensing systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton ISBN: 0-8493-1968-4Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cordeschi N, Shojafar M, Baccarelli E (2013) Energy-saving selfconfiguring networked data centers. Comput Netw 57(17): 3479–3491.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang H, Hou J (2005) Maintaining sensing coverage and connectivity in large sensor networks. Ad Hoc Sensor Wirel Netw 1(12):89–123Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Younis O, Fahmy S (2004) HEED: a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad hoc sensor networks. IEEE Trans Mobile Comput 3(4):366–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luchmun R, Pyanee M, Khedo KK (2012) Hierarchical hybrid energy efficient distributed clustering algorithm. Int J Comput Distrib Syst 2(1)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tsai Y (2007) Coverage-preserving routing protocols for randomly distributed wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 6(4):1240–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heinzelman WR, Chandrakasan A, Balakrishnan H (2000) Energy efficient communication protocols for wireless micro sensor networks. In: Proceedings of Hawaii international conference on system sciencesGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu A, Jin X, Cui G, Chen Z (2013) Deployment guidelines for achieving maximum lifetime and avoiding energy holes in sensor network. Inf Sci 230:197–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dong Y, Quan Q, Zhang J (2008) Priority-based energy aware and coverage preserving routing for wireless sensor network. In: Proceedings of vehicular technology conference, pp 138–142Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jin Y, Jo J, Wang L, Ki Y (2008) ECCRA: an energy-efficient coverage and connectivity preserving routing algorithm under border effects in wireless sensor networks. Comput Commun 31(10):2398–2407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ahmed N, Kanhere SS, Jha S (2005) The holes problem in wireless sensor networks: a survey. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Comput Commun Rev 9(2):4–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Omranpour H, Ebadzadeh MM, Barzegar S, Shojafar M (2008) Distributed coloring of the graph edges. In: Proceedings of 7th IEEE international conference on cybernetic intelligent systems 2008 (CIS2008), UK, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zeng X, Bagrodia R, Gerla M (1998) GloMoSim: a library for parallel simulation of large-scale wireless networks. In: Proceedings of parallel and dstributed simulation, (PADS 98), vol 161, p 154Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Ahmadi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Shojafar
    • 2
  • Seyede Fatemeh Hajeforosh
    • 3
  • Mehdi Dehghan
    • 4
  • Mukesh Singhal
    • 5
  1. 1.Electrical and Computer DepartmentIslamic Azad UniversityQazvinIran
  2. 2.Department of Information Engineering, Electronic and Telecommunication (DIET)“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  3. 3.Electrical Engineering DepartmentMazandaran University of Science and TechnologyBabolIran
  4. 4.Computer Engineering DepartmentAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  5. 5.Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaMercedUSA

Personalised recommendations