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Architecture and design of high-throughput, low-latency, and fault-tolerant routing algorithm for 3D-network-on-chip (3D-NoC)

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Abstract

Despite the higher scalability and parallelism integration offered by Network-on-Chip (NoC) over the traditional shared-bus based systems, it is still not an ideal solution for future large-scale Systems-on-Chip (SoCs), due to limitations such as high power consumption, high-cost communication, and low throughput. Recently, extending 2D-NoC to the third dimension (3D-NoC) has been proposed to deal with these problems; however, 3D-NoC systems are exposed to a variety of manufacturing and design factors making them vulnerable to different faults that cause corrupted message transfer or even catastrophic system failures. Therefore, a 3D-NoC system should be fault tolerant to transient malfunctions or permanent physical damages.

In this paper, we propose a low-latency, high-throughput, and fault-tolerant routing algorithm named Look-Ahead-Fault-Tolerant (LAFT). LAFT reduces the communication latency and enhances the system performance while maintaining a reasonable hardware complexity and ensuring fault tolerance. We implemented the proposed algorithm on a real 3D-NoC architecture (3D-OASIS-NoC) and prototyped it on FPGA, then we evaluated its performance over various applications. Evaluation results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces the communication latency that can reach an average of 38 % and 16 %, when compared to conventional XYZ and our early designed Look-Ahead-XYZ routing algorithms, respectively, and enhances the throughput with up to 46 % and 29 %.

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Correspondence to Akram Ben Ahmed.

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Ben Ahmed, A., Ben Abdallah, A. Architecture and design of high-throughput, low-latency, and fault-tolerant routing algorithm for 3D-network-on-chip (3D-NoC). J Supercomput 66, 1507–1532 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-013-0940-9

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Keywords

  • 3D-NoC
  • Architecture
  • Fault-tolerance
  • Look-ahead routing