The Journal of Supercomputing

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 812–828 | Cite as

Reversibility of image with balanced fidelity and capacity upon pixels differencing expansion

  • Fu-Hau Hsu
  • Min-Hao Wu
  • Shiuh-Jeng Wang
  • Chia-Ling Huang


Reversible data hiding has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Being reversible, the decoder can extract hidden data and recover the original image completely, and the difference expansion (DE) scheme can lead to a lossless pixel after secret data exacting. Furthermore, despite achieving pixel reversibility based on the concept of expanded differencing, the difference expansion scheme can cause enormous image distortion because of the size of the difference. The proposed scheme in this paper describes a novel prediction for achieving predictive error based reversible data hiding by considering the relation between a pixel and its neighboring pixel and using the predictor to identify the projected difference in pixel value. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is capable of providing great embedding capacity without causing noticeable distortion by selecting the minimal predictor based on pixel expansion. In multilevel cases, this proposed method performs better than other existing methods. Moreover, the proposed scheme is able to pass the Chi-square test, a test used to find whether an image utilizes LSB for data hiding.


Reversible data hiding Difference expansion Histogram Predictor 



This research was partially supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of China under the Grants NSC 101-2221-E-008-028-MYZ and NSC 100-2221-E-015-001-MY2.


  1. 1.
    Tian J (2003) Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 13:890–896 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alattar M (2004) Reversible watermark using the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform. IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1147–1156 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang CC, Lu TC (2006) A difference expansion oriented data hiding scheme for restoring the original host images. J Syst Softw 79:1754–1766 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weng S, Zhao Y, Pan JS, Ni R (2007) A novel reversible watermarking based on an integer transform. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on image processing, vol 3, pp 241–244 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weng S, Zhao Y, Pan JS, Ni R (2008) Reversible watermarking based on invariability and adjustment on pixel pairs. IEEE Signal Process Lett 15:721–724 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Awrangjeb M, Kankanhalli M (2004) Lossless watermarking considering the human visual system. In: Digital watermarking, pp 329–336 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang CY, Hu WC (2011) High-performance reversible data hiding with overflow/underflow avoidance. ETRI J 33:580–588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ni Z, Shi YQ, Ansari N, Su W (2006) Reversible data hiding. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 16:354–362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsai P, Hu YC, Yeh HL (2009) Reversible image hiding scheme using predictive coding and histogram shifting. Signal Process 89:1129–1143 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin CC, Hsueh NL (2008) A lossless data hiding scheme based on three-pixel block differences. Pattern Recognit 41(4):1415–1425 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zeng X, Ping L, Li Z (2009) Lossless data hiding scheme using adjacent pixel difference based on scan path. J Multimed 4:145–152 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luo H, Yu FX, Chen H, Huang ZL, Li H, Wang PH (2011) Reversible data hiding based on block median preservation. Inf Sci 181:308–328 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li YC, Yeh CM, Chang CC (2010) Data hiding based on the similarity between neighboring pixels with reversibility. Digit Signal Process 20(4):1116–1128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fallahpour M, Megias D, Ghanbari M (2011) Subjectively adapted high capacity lossless image data hiding based on prediction errors. Multimed Tools Appl 52:513–552 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hong W, Chen TS, Shiu CW (2008) Reversible data hiding based on histogram shifting of prediction errors. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on intelligent information technology application workshop, pp 292–295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tai WL, Yeh CM, Chang CC (2009) Reversible data hiding based on histogram modification of pixel differences. In: IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol 19, pp 906–910 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hsu FH, Wu MH, Wang SJ (2012) Reversible data hiding using side-match predictions on steganographic images. In: Multimedia tools and applications, pp 1–21 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hsiao JY, Chan KF, Chang JM (2009) Block-based reversible data embedding. Signal Process 89(4):556–569 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang B, Lu ZM, Sun SH (2005) Reversible watermarking in the VQ-compressed domain. In: Proceedings of the fifth IASTED international conference on visualization, imaging, and image processing (VIIP’2005), Benidorm, Spain, pp 298–303 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen WJ, Huang WT (2009) VQ indexes compression and information hiding using hybrid lossless index coding. Digit Signal Process 19:433–443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lu ZM, Wang JX, Liu BB (2009) An improved lossless data hiding scheme based on image VQ-index residual value coding. J Syst Softw 82:1016–1024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee C-F, Chen H-L, Lai S-H (2010) An adaptive data hiding scheme with high embedding capacity and visual image quality based on SMVQ prediction through classification codebooks. Journal of Image and Vision Computing 28:1293–1302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guillermito (2004) Steganography: a few tools to discover hidden data.
  24. 24.
    Lee S, Yoo CD, Kalker T (2007) Reversible image watermarking based on integer-to-integer wavelet transform. In: IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, vol 2, pp 321–330 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fu-Hau Hsu
    • 1
  • Min-Hao Wu
    • 1
  • Shiuh-Jeng Wang
    • 2
  • Chia-Ling Huang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Central UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Information ManagementCentral Police UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Logistics and Shipping ManagementKainan UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations