In the present study, the kinetics and thermodynamics of the successful one-pot synthesis of arene-based PCP/PNP pincer ligands by less nucleophilic secondary halophosphines (mono/bis(phosphinomethyl)benzene/pyridine) via SN2 reactions, which have been recently developed by Shih and Ozerov (Organometallics 34:4591, 35), have been studied. By utilizing different substituents on the target molecules, the impact of such modifications has been investigated both in gas phase and in solution. Performed calculations showed clear dependence of the activation energy and reaction rates on the presence of lithium in the structure. Additionally, the nature of the leaving group was observed to influence the favorability of the reaction. Similarly, the type of the halogen on both substrate and nucleophile had impact on the reaction rates, with the use of iodide leading to the observation of the fastest reaction rates. The solvent used was also noted to exert considerable influence on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions. However, the R group in the nucleophile (XPR2) showed no significant inductive effect on the activation energy, but a slight steric effect could be observed.
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We gratefully acknowledge the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) for supporting this study. We also acknowledge the partial financial support from the Research Affairs Division Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Mohammadnezhad, G., Abad, S. & Farrokhpour, H. Theoretical studies on the thermodynamics and kinetics of one-pot synthesis of aromatic PCP and PNP pincer ligands. Struct Chem 29, 81–88 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11224-017-1002-3