Development of Graphene Nanoplatelets-Reinforced Thermo-Responsive Shape Memory Nanocomposites for High Recovery Force Applications

  • R. Kumar GuptaEmail author
  • S. A. R. Hashmi
  • S. Verma
  • A. Naik

The development and large-scale implementation of multifunctional advanced materials with smart and intelligent properties like shape memory are very topical. In the present work, we report the development of multifunctional graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)-reinforced thermo-responsive shape memory composites, in ether type shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) matrix. A unique twin screw co-rotating microcompounder with a back flow channel was operated to ensure proper dispersion of GNPs in the SMPU matrix for developing different compositions of nanocomposites, namely SMC0, SMC1, SMC2, and SMC3, respectively. The detailed characterizations and properties of the above developed nanocomposites were studied using various complementary techniques for spectroscopy, morphology, mechanical, thermal, shape memory, DMA, etc. The dynamic thermomechanical properties of all the developed nanocomposites were studied at 0.1 and 10 Hz, respectively. Structure of SMP and developed composite were also analyzed using various spectroscopic methods. The addition of GNPs to the SMP matrix improved the mechanical and shape memory properties, although a noticeable impact on thermal property is also reported. The fractured microphotographs reveal the uniform dispersion of GNP in SMPU. Addition of 1 phr GNPs increased storage modulus of SMPU from 3.14 to 4.11 GPa and the value of tan δ peak was decreased from 0.81 to 0.53, respectively. The GNPs in SMPU matrix influences the shape recovery, which is improved with the addition of GNPs in the experimental range.


shape memory polymer shape memory polyurethane graphene nanoplatelets dynamic mechanical analysis microcompounder 



The first author is highly thankful to CSIR, New Delhi, for granting Fellowship under which the present work was carried out. Authors are grateful to Director CSIR-AMPRI Bhopal for providing necessary institutional facilities and encouragement.


  1. 1.
    S. A. R. Hashmi, H. C. Prasad, R. Abishera, et al., “Improved recovery stress in multi-walled-carbonnanotubes reinforced polyurethane,” Mater. Design, 67, 492–500 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Wu, J. Hu, C. Zhang, et al., “A facile approach to fabricate a UV/heat dual-responsive triple shape memory polymer,” J. Mater. Chem. A, 3, No. 1, 97–100 (2015).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Pieczyska, M. Staszczak, M. Maj, et al., “Investigation of thermal effects accompanying tensile deformation of Shape Memory Polymer PU-SMP,” Meas. Automat. Monitor., 61, No. 6, 203–205 (2015).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. D. Eisenbach, “Isomerization of aromatic azo chromophores in poly(ethyl acrylate) networks and photomechanical effect,” Polymer, 21, No. 10, 1175–1179 (1980).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Finkelmann, E. Nishikawa, G. Pereira, and M. Warner, “A new opto-mechanical effect in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 87, No. 1, 015501 (2001).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Yang, W. Huang, C. Li, and L. Li, “Effects of moisture on the thermomechanical properties of a polyurethane shape memory polymer,” Polymer, 47, No. 4, 1348–1356 (2006).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Wang, D. Liu, Y. Liu, et al., “Electrical actuation properties of reduced graphene oxide paper/epoxy-based shape memory composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 106, 20–24 (2015).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Zeng, et al., “Electro-active shape memory composites enhanced by flexible carbon nanotube/graphene aerogels,” J. Mater. Chem. A, 3, No. 21, 11641–11649 (2015).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. M. Schmidt, “Electromagnetic activation of shape memory polymer networks containing magnetic nanoparticles,” Macromol. Rapid Comm., 27, No. 14, 1168–1172 (2006).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. J. Han, Z. Q. Dong, M. M. Fan, et al., “pH-induced shape-memory polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Comm., 33, No. 12, 1055–1060 (2012).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Liu, H. Qin, and P. Mather, “Review of progress in shape-memory polymers,” J. Mater. Chem., 17, No. 16, 1543–1558 (2007).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Hu, Y. Zhu, H. Huang, and J. Lu, “Recent advances in shape–memory polymers: Structure, mechanism, functionality, modeling and applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 37, No. 12, 1720–1763 (2012).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    I. A. Rousseau, “Challenges of shape memory polymers: A review of the progress toward overcoming SMP’s limitations,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 48, No. 11, 2075–2089 (2008).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. K. Kim, S. Y. Lee, and M. Xu, “Polyurethanes having shape memory effects,” Polymer, 37, No. 26, 5781–5793 (1996).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Q. Meng, J. Hu, and Y. Zhu, “Properties of shape memory polyurethane used as a low-temperature thermoplastic biomedical orthotic material: influence of hard segment content,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed., 19, No. 11, 1437–1454 (2008).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Yoshihara, H. Ishihara, and T. Yamada, “Relationship between segment structures and elastic properties of segmented poly(urethane-urea) elastic fibers,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 43, No. 11, 1740–1754 (2003).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Liu, K. Gall, M. L. Dunn, and P. McCluskey, “Thermomechanics of shape memory polymer nanocomposites,” Mech. Mater., 36, No. 10, 929–940 (2004).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Cao and S. C. Jana, “Nanoclay-tethered shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites,” Polymer, 48, No. 13, 3790–3800 (2007).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. G. R. Carlos, F. G. D. Mario, K. Hoejin, et al., “3D printing of shape memory polymer (SMP)/carbon black (CB) nanocomposites with electro-responsive toughness enhancement,” Mater. Res. Express, 5, No. 6, 065704 (2018).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    F.-P. Du, E.-Z. Ye, W. Yang, et al., “Electroactive shape memory polymer based on optimized multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites,” Compos. Part B-Eng., 68, 170–175 (2015).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. S. Olalla, V. Sessini, E. G. Torres, and L. Peponi, Smart Nanocellulose Composites with Shape-Memory Behavior, in: D. Puglia, E. Fortunati, and J. M. Kenny (Eds.), Multifunctional Polymeric Nanocomposites Based on Cellulosic Reinforcements, Ch. 9, Elsevier Inc. (2016), pp. 277–312.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Yuan, D. Pedrazzoli, G. Pircheraghi, and I. Manas-Zloczower, “Melt compounding of thermoplastic polyurethanes incorporating 1D and 2D carbon nanofillers,” Polym.-Plast. Technol., 56, No. 7, 732–743 (2017).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Nieto, D. Lahiri, and A. Agarwal, “Synthesis and properties of bulk graphene nanoplatelets consolidated by spark plasma sintering,” Carbon, 50, No. 11, 4068– 4077 (2012).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Lashgari, M. Karrabi, I. Ghasemi, et al.,, “Shape memory nanocomposite of poly(L-lactic acid)/graphene nanoplatelets triggered by infrared light and thermal heating,” Express Polym. Lett., 10, No. 4, 349–359 (2016).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Williams, M. Meador, S. Miller, and D. Scheiman, “Effect of graphene addition on shape memory behavior of epoxy resins,” NASA Glenn Research Center, Polymers Branch, Structures and Materials Division (2011),
  26. 26.
    H. C. Prasad, S. A. R. Hashmi, A. Naik, and H. N. Bhargaw, “Improved shape memory effects in multiwalled-carbon-nano-tube reinforced thermosetting polyurethane composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 134, No. 7, 44389 (2017),
  27. 27.
    V. A. E. Barrios, J. R. R. Mendez, N. V. P. Aguilar, et al., FTIR – An Essential Characterization Technique for Polymeric Materials, in: T. Theophanides (Ed.), Infrared Spectroscopy: Materials Science, Engineering and Technology, InTech (2012), pp. 195–212.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. S. Patole, S. P. Patole, H. Kang, et al., “A facile approach to the fabrication of graphene/polystyrene nanocomposite by in situ microemulsion polymerization,” J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 350, No. 2, 530–537 (2010).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    I. M. Inuwa, A. Hassan, S. A. Samsudin, et al., “Mechanical and thermal properties of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets reinforced polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene composites,” Polym. Composite., 35, No. 10, 2029–2035 (2014).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Hameed, P. A. Sreekumar, B. Francis, et al., “Morphology, dynamic mechanical and thermal studies on poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) modified epoxy resin/glass fibre composites,” Compos. Part A-Appl. S., 38, No. 12, 2422–2432 (2007).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Kumar Gupta
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. A. R. Hashmi
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Verma
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Naik
    • 2
  1. 1.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)AMPRIBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (AMPRI),BhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations