Strength of Materials

, Volume 50, Issue 5, pp 772–780 | Cite as

Elastoplastic Model of Sand Under Complex Loading

  • Z. WanEmail author
  • C. C. Song
  • W. S. Gao

The unified hardening model for overconsolidated clay is extended to the cyclic model considering the stress–strain relationship for sands by adopting the rotational hardening rule. The equations for the normal consolidated line and critical state line are revised in the e – ln p space to describe the breakage behavior of gravel sands under high pressures. The power function is used to define the above equations. The model features the following characteristics: (1) equations for the above lines are redefined in the e – ln p space; (2) potential strength is revised by the Hvorslev line containing the power parameter; (3) cyclic behavior of sands is described by the evolutionary rule of current yield surface and rotational hardening rule; (4) generalized cyclic model is realized using the transformed stress method based on the spatially mobilized plane criterion. Simulation results show that the breakage and cyclic loading behavior of gravel sands are adequately described.


sands rotational hardening transformed stress method cyclic loading 



This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China for young scholars (Grant No. 11402260).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China Academy of Building Research, Research Institute of Base and FoundationBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Structural Engineering and Disaster ReductionTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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