Statistics and Computing

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 941–952 | Cite as

Permutation tests for between-unit fixed effects in multivariate generalized linear mixed models

Article

Abstract

A permutation testing approach in multivariate mixed models is presented. The solutions proposed allow for testing between-unit effect; they are exact under some assumptions, while approximated in the more general case. The classes of models comprised by this approach include generalized linear models, vector generalized additive models and other nonparametric models based on smoothing. Moreover it does not assume observations of different units to have the same distribution. The extensions to a multivariate framework are presented and discussed. The proposed multivariate tests exploit the dependence among variables, hence increasing the power with respect to other standard solutions (e.g. Bonferroni correction) which combine many univariate tests in an overall one. Examples are given of two applications to real data from psychological and ecological studies; a simulation study provides some insight into the unbiasedness of the tests and their power. The methods were implemented in the R package flip, freely available on CRAN.

Keywords

Permutation tests Mixed models Multivariate inference 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Statistical SciencesUniversity of Padua35100Italy

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