Advertisement

Software Quality Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 3–19 | Cite as

Project managers in global software development teams: a study of the effects on productivity and performance

  • Ricardo Colomo-Palacios
  • Cristina Casado-Lumbreras
  • Pedro Soto-Acosta
  • Francisco José García-Peñalvo
  • Edmundo Tovar
Article

Abstract

Globalization is having a deep impact on today’s world economy. One of the most affected industries is the software industry. Recently, global software development (GSD) has gained a lot of attention. This new trend of producing software is influencing all software processes, including human resource management. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the implications of GSD for software project managers by analyzing project performance from different perspectives such as the 360-degree feedback evaluation. Results show that performance of GSD projects is lower than in-house projects, but apart from that, this study reveals that there are also negative consequences for software project managers, which need to be taken into account. For instance, the experiment revealed a lack of attention to tasks by software project managers and, as a consequence of this, performance losses. The main conclusions of this research may be valuable for software development organizations.

Keywords

Global software development Software project managers Efficiency 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Fundación Cajamurcia for the financial support provided.

References

  1. Albrecht, A. J., & Gaffney, J. E. (1983). Software function, source lines of code, and development effort prediction: A software science validation. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 9(6), 639–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali Barbar, M., Verner, J. M., & Nguyen, P. T. (2007). Establishing and maintaining trust in software outsourcing relationships: An empirical investigation. Journal of Systems and Software, 80(9), 1438–1449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R. (1999). Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International Journal of Project Management, 17(6), 337–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atwater, L. E., & Brett, J. F. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of reactions to developmental 360° feedback. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(3), 532–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avritzer, A., Paulish, D., Cai, Y., & Sethi, K. (2010). Coordination implications of software architecture in a global software development project. Journal of Systems and Software, 83(10), 1881–1895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beehr, T. A., Ivanitskaya, L., Hansen, C. P., Erofeev, D., & Gudanowski, D. M. (2001). Evaluation of 360 degree feedback ratings: relationships with each other and with performance and selection predictors. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 22(7), 775–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boehm, B. W., & Ross, R. (1989). Theory-W software project management principles and examples. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15(7), 902–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosch, J., & Bosch-Sijtsema, P. (2010). From integration to composition: On the impact of software product lines, global development and ecosystems. Journal of Systems and Software, 83(1), 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brutus, S., Fleenor, J. W., & London, M. (1998). Does 360-degree feedback work in different industries?: A between-industry comparison of the reliability and validity of multi-source performance ratings. Journal of Management Development, 17(3), 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carmel, E., & Agarwal, R. (2001). Tactical approaches for alleviating distance in global software development. IEEE Software, 18(2), 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carmel, E., & Tjia, P. (2005). Offshoring information technology: Sourcing and outsourcing to a global workforce. Cambridge: UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Casey, V., & Richardson, I. (2008). Virtual teams: understanding the impact of fear. Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 13(6), 511–526.Google Scholar
  13. Casey, V., & Richardson, I. (2009). Implementation of global software development: a structured approach. Software Process Improvement and Practice, 14(5), 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Church, A. H. (2000). Do higher performing managers actually receive better ratings? A validation of multirater assessment methodology. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 52(2), 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clott, C. B. (2004). Perspectives on global outsourcing and the changing nature of work. Business and Society Review, 109(2), 153–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colazo, J. A., & Fang, J. (2010). Following the sun: temporal dispersion and performance in open source Software project teams. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 11(11), 684–707.Google Scholar
  17. Colomo-Palacios, R., Casado-Lumbreras, C., Soto-Acosta, P., & García-Crespo, A. (2011). Using the affect grid to measure emotions in software requirements engineering. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 17(9), 1281–1298.Google Scholar
  18. Colomo-Palacios, R., Casado-Lumbreras, C., Soto-Acosta, P., Misra, S., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2012). Analyzing human resource management practices within the GSD context. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 15(3), 30–54.Google Scholar
  19. Conchuir, E. O., Holmstrom-Olson, H., Agerfalk, P. J., & Fitzgerald, B. (2009). Benefits of global software development: Exploring the unexplored. Software Process Improvement and Practice, 14(4), 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crow, G. B., & Muthuswamy, B. (2003). International outsourcing in the information technology industry: Trends and implications. Communications of the International Information Management Association, 3(1), 25–34.Google Scholar
  21. Cusumano, M. A. (2008). Managing software development in globally distributed teams. Communications of the ACM, 51(2), 15–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. D’Mello, M., & Sahay, S. (2007). “I am kind of a nomad where I have to go places and places”… Understanding mobility, place and identity in global software work from India. Information and Organization, 17(3), 162–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Damian, D., & Moitra, D. (2006). Global software development: How far have we come? IEEE Software, 23(5), 17–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dweiri, F. T., & Kablan, M. M. (2006). Using fuzzy decision making for the evaluation of the project management internal efficiency. Decision Support Systems, 42(2), 712–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebert, C. (2012). Global software and IT: A guide to distributed development, projects, and outsourcing. NY: Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar
  26. García-Crespo, Á., Colomo-Palacios, R., Soto-Acosta, P., & Ruano-Mayoral, M. (2010). a qualitative study of hard decision making in managing global software development teams. Information Systems Management, 27(3), 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. García-Guzmán, J., Saldaña-Ramos, J., Amescua-Seco, A., & Sanz-Esteban, A. (2010). How to get mature global virtual teams: a framework to improve team process management in distributed software teams. Software Quality Journal, 18(4), 409–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. García-Guzmán, J., Saldaña-Ramos, J., Amescua-Seco, A., & Sanz-Esteban, A. (2011). Success factors for the management of global virtual teams for software development. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals, 2(2), 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gefen, D., & Carmel, E. (2008). Is the world really flat? A look at offshoring at an online programming marketplace. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 32(2), 367–384.Google Scholar
  30. Gupta, A. (2009). Deriving mutual benefits from offshore outsourcing. Communications of the ACM, 52(6), 122–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta, A., & Seshasai, S. (2007). 24-hour knowledge factory: Using internet technology to leverage spatial and temporal separations. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 7(3), 1–22.Google Scholar
  32. Gupta, A., Mattarelli, E., Seshasai, S., & Broschak, J. (2009). Use of collaborative technologies and knowledge sharing in co-located and distributed teams: Towards the 24-h knowledge factory. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 18(3), 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herbsleb, J. D., & Mockus, A. (2003). An empirical study of speed and communication in globally distributed software development. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 29(9), 481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Herbsleb, J. D., & Moitra, D. (2001). Global software development. IEEE Software, 18(2), 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hernández-López, A., Colomo Palacios, R., García Crespo, A., & Soto-Acosta, P. (2010a). Trust building process for global software development teams. A review from the Literature. International Journal of Knowledge Society Research, 1(1): 65–82.Google Scholar
  36. Hernández-López, A., Colomo-Palacios, R., García-Crespo, Á., & Soto-Acosta, P. (2010b). Team software process in GSD teams: A study of new work practices and models. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals, 1(3), 32–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jalote, P., & Jain, G. (2006). Assigning tasks in a 24-h software development model. Journal of Systems and Software, 79(7), 904–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jiang, J., & Klein, G. (2000). Software development risks to project effectiveness. Journal of Systems and Software, 52(1), 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khan, S. U., Niazi, M., & Ahmad, R. (2011). Factors influencing clients in the selection of offshore software outsourcing vendors: An exploratory study using a systematic literature review. Journal of Systems and Software, 84(4), 686–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kommeren, R., & Parviainen, P. (2007). Philips experiences in global distributed software development. Empirical Software Engineering, 12(6), 647–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Krishna, S., Sahay, S., & Walsham, G. (2004). Managing cross-cultural issues in global software outsourcing. Communications of the ACM, 47(4), 62–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kunda, D., & Brooks, L. (2000). Assessing organizational obstacles to component-based development: A case study approach. Information and Software Technology, 42(10), 715–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Layman, L., Williams, L., Damian, D., & Bures, H. (2006). Essential communication practices for extreme programming in a global software development team. Information and Software Technology, 48(9), 781–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Martins, L. L., Gilson, L. L., & Maynard, M. T. (2004). Virtual teams: What do we know and where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 30(6), 805–835.Google Scholar
  45. Massingham, P., Nguyen, T. N. Q., & Massingham, R. (2011). Using 360 degree peer review to validate self-reporting in human capital measurement. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 12(1), 43–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Milewski, A. E., Tremaine, M., Köbler, F., Egan, R., Zhang, S., & O’Sullivan, P. (2008). Guidelines for effective bridging in global software engineering. Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 13(6), 477–492.Google Scholar
  47. Muhairat, M., Aldaajeh, S., & Al-Qutaish, R. E. (2010). The impact of global software development factors on effort estimation methods. European Journal of Scientific Research, 46(2), 221–232.Google Scholar
  48. Noll, J., Beecham, S., & Richardson, I. (2010). Global software development and collaboration: Barriers and solutions. ACM Inroads, 1(3), 66–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Olsen, R. P. (1971). Can project management be defined? Project Management Quarterly, 2(1), 12–14.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  50. Oza, N. V., Hall, T., Rainer, A., & Grey, S. (2006). Trust in software outsourcing relationships: An empirical investigation of Indian software companies. Information and Software Technology, 48(5), 345–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Prikladnicki, R., & Audy, J. L. N. (2010). Process models in the practice of distributed software development: A systematic review of the literature. Information and Software Technology, 52(8), 779–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Prikladnicki, R., Audy, J. L. N., & Evaristo, R. (2003). Global software development in practice lessons learned. Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 8(4), 267–281.Google Scholar
  53. Ramasubbu, N., & Balan, R.K. (2007). Globally distributed software development project performance: an empirical analysis. Proceedings of the 6th joint meeting of the European software engineering conference and the ACM SIGSOFT symposium on the foundations of software engineering: pp. 125–134.Google Scholar
  54. Ramasubbu, N., Krishnan, M. S., & Kompalli, P. (2005). Leveraging global resources: A process maturity framework for managing distributed development. IEEE Software, 22(3), 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Robinson, M., & Kalakota, R. (2004). Offshore outsourcing: Business models. ROI and Best Practices: Mivar Press.Google Scholar
  56. Rogers, P., & Lea, M. (2005). Social presence in distributed group environments: the role of social identity. Behaviour & Information Technology, 24(2), 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rose, J., Pedersen, K., Hosbond, J. H., & Kræmmergaard, P. (2007). Management competences, not tools and techniques: A grounded examination of software project management at WM-data. Information and Software Technology, 49(6), 605–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smite, D., & Wohlin, C. (2011). Strategies facilitating software product transfers. IEEE Software, 28(5), 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Smite, D., Wohlin, C., Gorschek, T., & Feldt, R. (2010). Empirical evidence in global software engineering: A systematic review. Empirical Software Engineering, 15(1), 91–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sooraj, P., & Mohapatra, P. K. J. (2008). Modeling the 24-h software development process. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 1(2), 122–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo Colomo-Palacios
    • 1
  • Cristina Casado-Lumbreras
    • 1
  • Pedro Soto-Acosta
    • 1
  • Francisco José García-Peñalvo
    • 1
  • Edmundo Tovar
    • 1
  1. 1.Ricardo Colomo-PalaciosLeganesSpain

Personalised recommendations