Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 223–255 | Cite as

Teachers’ autonomy support, autonomy suppression and conditional negative regard as predictors of optimal learning experience among high-achieving Bedouin students

  • Haya Kaplan


The study is based on self-determination theory and focuses on the motivation of high-achieving Bedouin students who belong to a hierarchical-collectivist society. The study focuses on the question: What are the relations between teachers’ autonomy support and control and an optimal learning experience among students? The study is unique in its population and in the distinction it draws between two types of teachers’ control: autonomy suppression (explicit control), and conditional negative regard, a phenomenon examined for the first time in teachers (implicit psychological control). The study population consisted of 144 students from seven high schools (74% girls) who completed questionnaires at two time-points. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that perceived need satisfaction was positively predicted by teachers’ autonomy support, and negatively predicted by teachers’ conditional negative regard, while perception of a teacher as autonomy suppressive contributed directly and negatively to autonomous motivation. In turn psychological need satisfaction positively predicted autonomous motivation in learning that in turn predicted positive emotions and engagement in learning. The hypothesized mediation model has a good fit with the data. The findings have implications concerning the optimal conditions for learning among Bedouin students in general and high-achieving students in particular, and concerning the importance of autonomy-supportive teaching and refraining from control, explicit and implicit alike.


Self-determination theory (SDT) Autonomy support Autonomy suppression Conditional negative regard Collectivist society High-achieving students 


  1. Abu-Asbah, K. (2006). The Arab education system in Israel: Development and the current situation. In A. Haidar (Ed.), Arab society in Israel: Population, society, economy (pp. 210–221). Tel Aviv: Van Leer Jerusalem Institute and Hakibbutz Hameuchad (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Asbah, K. (2007). The Arab education system in Israel: Dilemmas of a national minority. Jerusalem: The Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies (Hebrew). Retrieved from
  3. Abu-Baker, K. (2010). Between independence and control: The case of an Arab widow. In S. Abu-Rabia-Queder & N. Weiner-Levy (Eds.), Palestinian women in Israel: Identity, power relations, and coping strategies (pp. 27–48). Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad and Van Leer Jerusalem Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Abu-Rabia-Queder, S., & Weiner-Levy, N. (2010). Introduction. In S. Abu-Rabia-Queder & N. Weiner-Levy (Eds.), Palestinian women in Israel: Identity, power relations, and coping strategies (pp. 27–48). Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad and Van Leer Jerusalem Institute.Google Scholar
  5. Abu-Saad, I. (2001). Education as a tool for control vs. development among indigenous people: The case of the Bedouin Arabs in Israel. HAGAR-International Social Science Review, 2(2), 241–259.Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad, I., Vansteenkiste, M., & Soenens, B. (2013). The relations of Arab Jordanian adolescents’ perceived maternal parenting to teacher-rated adjustment and problems: The intervening role of perceived need satisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 49, 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alayan, S. (2013). Good teaching and meaningful teachers from the perspective of Arab students in Israel: Implications for Arab teachers. In A. Agbaria (Ed.), Teacher education in Palestinian society in Israel: Institutional practices and educational policy (pp. 215–234). Tel Aviv: Resling (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  8. Al-Dhamit, Y., & Kreishan, I. (2016). Gifted students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and parental influence on their motivation: From the self-determination perspective. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 16(1), 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Haj, M. (2003). Higher education among the Arabs in Israel: Formal policy between empowerment and control. Higher Education Policy, 16(3), 351–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Krenawi, A. (1999). Explanations of mental health symptoms by the Bedouin Arabs of the Negev. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45(1), 56–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Al-Krenawi, A. (2000). Ethno-psychiatry among the Bedouin Arabs of the Negev. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  12. Al-Krenawi, A. (2010). Women in polygamy families in the Arab-Bedouin society in the Negev. In S. Abu-Rabia-Queder & N. Weiner-Levy (Eds.), Palestinian women in Israel: Identity, power, and coping strategies (pp. 105–122). Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad and Van Leer Jerusalem Institute.Google Scholar
  13. APA Work Group of the Board of Educational Affairs. (1997). Learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for school reform and redesign. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  14. Assor, A. (2012). Allowing choice and nurturing an inner compass: Educational practices supporting students’ need for autonomy. In S. L. Christenson et al. (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 421–439). Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Assor, A., Feinberg, O., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Kaplan, H. (2017). Reducing violence in non-controlling ways: A change program based on self-determination theory. The Journal of Experimental Education. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2016.1277336.Google Scholar
  16. Assor, A., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2014). Parental conditional regard: Psychological costs and antecedents. In N. Weinstein (Ed.), Human motivation and interpersonal relationships (pp. 215–237). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Assor, A., & Kaplan, H. (2001). Mapping the domain of autonomy support: Five important ways to enhance or undermine students’ experience of autonomy in learning. In A. Efklides, R. Sorrentino, & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research (pp. 101–120). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  18. Assor, A., & Roth, G. (2005). The harmful effects of parental conditional regard. Scientific Annals of the psychological Society of Northern Greece, 7, 17–34.Google Scholar
  19. Assor, A., Kaplan, H., Feinberg, O., & Tal, K. (2009). Combining vision with voice: A learning and implementation structure promoting teachers’ internalization of practices based on self-determination theory. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 234–243.Google Scholar
  20. Assor, A., Kaplan, H., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2005). Directly controlling teacher behaviors as predictors of poor motivation and engagement in girls and boys: The role of anger and anxiety. Learning and Instruction, 15(5), 397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, G. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy-enhancing and suppressing teacher behaviors predicting students’ engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The emotional costs of perceived parental conditional regard: A self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Assor, A., & Tal, K. (2012). When parents’ affection depends on child’s achievement: Parental conditional positive regard, self-aggrandizement, shame and coping in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 3, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67, 3296–3319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Barber, B. K., & Harmon, E. L. (2002). Violating the self: Parental psychological control of children and adolescents. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 15–52). Washington, DC: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barber, B., Stolz, H., & Olsen, J. (2005). Parental support, psychological control and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70, 1–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ben-David, Y. (2004). The Bedouins in Israel: Land conflicts and social issues. The Ben Shemesh Land Policy and Land Use Research Institute and the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  29. Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and students’ autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chao, R. K., & Aque, C. (2009). Interpretations of parental control by Asian immigrant and European American youth. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 242–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chao, R. K., & Tseng, V. (2002). Asian and American parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 59–94). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Chen, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., Boone, L., Deci, E. L., Van der Kaap-Deeder, J., et al. (2015). Basic psychological need satisfaction, need frustration, and need strength across four cultures. Motivation and Emotion, 39(2), 216–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cheon, S. H., & Reeve, J. (2015). A classroom-based intervention to help teachers decrease students’ amotivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 40, 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chirkov, V. I., Ryan, R. M., Kim, Y., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chirkov, V. I., Ryan, R. M., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Human autonomy in cross-cultural contexts: Perspectives on the psychology of agency, freedom and well-being (Vol. 1). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: An overview of self-determination theory. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 85–107). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., & Williams, G. C. (1996). Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8(3), 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Feinberg, O., Kaplan, H., Assor, A., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2008). Personal growth in a caring community: Autonomy supportive intervention program for reducing violence and promoting caring. Dapim Journal for Studies and Research in Education, 46, 21–61.Google Scholar
  41. Fulmer, S. M., & Frijters, J. C. (2009). A review of self-report and alternative approaches in the measurement of student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 21(3), 219–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garn, A. C., & Jolly, J. L. (2014). High ability students’ voice on learning motivation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 25(1), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Garn, A. C., Matthews, M. S., & Jolly, J. L. (2010). Parental influence on the academic motivation of gifted students: A self-determination theory perspective. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54(4), 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gewirtz, J. L., & Pelaez-Nogueras, M. (1991). Proximal mechanisms underlying the acquisition of moral behavior patterns. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development: Theory (Vol. 1, pp. 153–182). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Gottfried, A. W., Cook, C. R., Gottfried, A. E., & Morris, P. E. (2015). Educational characteristics of adolescents with gifted academic intrinsic motivation: A longitudinal investigation from school entry through early adulthood. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49(2), 172–186. doi: 10.1177/001698620504900206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grolnick, W. (2009). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires (pp. 34–50). New York, London: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  47. Haerens, L., Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., & Van Petegem, S. (2015). Do perceived autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching relate to physical education students’ motivational experience through unique pathways? Distinguishing between the bright and dark side of motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 26–36. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hardre, P. L., Chen, C., Huang, S., Chiang, C., Jen, F., & Warden, L. (2006). Factors affecting high school students’ academic motivation in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 26(2), 198–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Iyengar, S. S., & DeVoe, S. E. (2003). Rethinking the value of choice: Considering cultural mediators of intrinsic motivation. In V. Murphy-Berman & J. J. Berman (Eds.), The Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 49, pp. 146–191)., Cross-cultural differences in perspectives on the self Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.Google Scholar
  50. Jang, H. (2008). Supporting students’ motivation, engagement, and learning during an uninteresting activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 798–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jang, H., Kim, E. J., & Reeve, J. (2012). Longitudinal test of self-determination theory’s motivation mediation model in a naturally occurring classroom context. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 1175–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jang, H., Kim, E. J., & Reeve, J. (2016a). Why students become more engaged or more disengaged during the semester: A self-determination theory dual-process model. Learning and Instruction, 43, 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It’s not autonomy support or structure, but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 588–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Halusic, M. (2016b). A new autonomy-supportive way of teaching that increases conceptual learning: Teaching in students’ preferred ways. The Journal of Experimental Education, 84(4), 686–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jang, H., Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., & Kim, A. (2009). Can self-determination theory explain what underlies the productive, satisfying learning experiences of collectivistically oriented Korean students? Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 644–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kanat-Maymon, Y., Roth, G., Assor, A., & Raizer, A. (2016). Controlled by love: The harmful relational consequences of perceived conditional positive regard. Journal of Personality, 84, 446–460. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaplan, H. (2005). Effects of autonomy supportive or suppressive teacher behaviors on the academic functioning, motivation, and emotions of children and adolescents: Longitudinal study on students from varying levels of parental education. PhD dissertation. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  58. Kaplan, H., & Assor, A. (2012). Enhancing autonomy-supportive I-Thou dialogue in schools: Conceptualization and socio-emotional effects of an intervention program. Social Psychology of Education. doi: 10.1007/s11218-012-9178-2.Google Scholar
  59. Kaplan, H., Assor, A., El-Sayed, H., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2014). The unique contribution of autonomy support and autonomy frustration to predicting an optimal learning experience in Bedouin students: Testing self-determination theory in a collectivistic society. Dapim Journal for Studies and Research in Education, 58, 41–77.Google Scholar
  60. Kaplan, H., & Madjar, N. (2015). Autonomous motivation and pro-environmental behaviors among Bedouin students in Israel: A self-determination theory perspective. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 31(02), 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Katz, I. (2003). The effect of autonomy support on intrinsic motivation in children from diverse cultural backgrounds. Doctoral dissertation. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  62. Katz, I., Assor, A., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2008). A projective assessment of autonomous motivation in children: Correlational and experimental evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 32(2), 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Knesset Research and Information Center. (2013). (Hebrew). Retrieved from:
  64. Madjar, N., Nave, A., & Hen, S. (2012). Are teachers’ psychological control, autonomy support and autonomy suppression associated with students’ goals? Educational Studies, 39(1), 43–55. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2012.667871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Culture, self and the reality of the social. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marzooghi, R., Sheikholeslami, R., & Shamshiri, B. (2009). Comparing achievement goal orientations of Iranian gifted and non-gifted school children. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(10), 1990–1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Matthews, M. S., & McBee, M. T. (2007). School factors and the underachievement of gifted students in a talent search summer program. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(2), 167–181. doi: 10.1177/0016986207299473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ministry of Education, Israel, Division for Gifted and Outstanding Students. (2005). Motivation and its assessment: Literature review and recommendations for use of motivation assessment tools to help identify gifted students in the education system (Hebrew). Retrieved 25.10.16 from:
  69. Miserandino, M. (1996). Children who do well in school: Individual differences in perceived competence and autonomy in above-average children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(2), 203–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mustafa, M., & Arar, K. (2009). Higher education among minorities: The case of the Arab minority in Israel. In R. Khamaise (Ed.), Arab society in Israel: Population, society, economy (pp. 204–226). Tel Aviv: Van Leer Jerusalem Institute and Hakibbutz Hameuchad (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  71. Pelletier, L. G., Séguin-Lévesque, C., & Legault, L. (2002). Pressure from above and pressure from below as determinants of teachers’ motivation and teaching behaviors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 186–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pelletier, L. G., & Sharp, E. C. (2009). Administrative pressures and teachers’ interpersonal behavior in the classroom. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 174–183.Google Scholar
  73. Perrone, L., Borelli, J. L., Smiley, P., Rasmussen, H. F., & Hilt, L. M. (2016). Do children’s attributions mediate the link between parental conditional regard and child depression and emotion? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(11), 3387–3402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reeve, J. (1998). Autonomy support as an interpersonal motivating style: Is it teachable? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23(3), 312–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reeve, J. (2006). Teachers as facilitators: What autonomy supportive teachers do and why their students benefit. The Elementary School Journal, 106(3), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reeve, J., & Assor, A. (2011). Do social institutions necessarily suppress individuals’ need for autonomy? The possibility of schools as autonomy promoting contexts across the globe. In V. I. Chirkov, R. M. Ryan, & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Human autonomy in cross cultural contexts, perspectives on the psychology of agency, freedom and well-being (pp. 111–132). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reeve, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004a). Self-determination theory: A dialectical framework for understanding socio-cultural influences on student motivation. In D. M. McInerney & S. Van Etten (Eds.), Big theories revisited (pp. 31–60). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Press.Google Scholar
  79. Reeve, J., & Halusic, M. (2009). How K-12 teachers can put self-determination theory principles into practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 145–154.Google Scholar
  80. Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students’ autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reeve, J., Jang, H., Carrell, D., Jeon, S., & Barch, J. (2004b). Enhancing students’ engagement by increasing teachers’ autonomy support. Motivation and Emotion, 28(2), 147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reeve, J., & Sickenius, B. (1994). Development and validation of a brief measure of the three psychological needs underlying intrinsic motivation: The AFS Scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 506–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reeve, J., & Tseng, C.-M. (2011). Agency as a fourth aspect of students’ engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 257–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reeve, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Assor, A., Ahmad, I., Cheon, S. H., Jang, H., et al. (2013). The beliefs that underlie autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching: A multinational investigation. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Renzulli, J. S. (1977). The enrichment triad model. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press.Google Scholar
  86. Ritchotte, J. R., Suhr, D., Alfurayh, N. F., & Graefe, A. K. (2016). An exploration of the psychosocial characteristics of high achieving students and identified gifted students: Implications for practice. Journal of Advanced Academics, 27(1), 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Roth, G. (2008). Perceived parental conditional regard and autonomy support as predictors of young adults’ self-versus other-oriented prosocial tendencies. Journal of Personality, 76(3), 513–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roth, G., & Assor, A. (2010). Parental conditional regard as a predictor of deficiencies in young children’s capacities to respond to sad feelings. Infant and Child Development, 19(5), 465–477.Google Scholar
  89. Roth, G., & Assor, A. (2012). The costs of parental pressure to express emotions: Conditional regard and autonomy support as predictors of emotion regulation and intimacy. Journal of Adolescence, 35(4), 799–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Roth, G., Assor, A., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Kaplan, H. (2007). Autonomous motivation for teaching: How self-determined teaching may lead to self-determined learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 761–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roth, G., Assor, A., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The emotional and behavioral consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing positive conditional regard, negative conditional regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 1119–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rothbaum, F., Pott, M., Azuma, H., Miyake, K., & Weisz, J. (2000). The development of close relationships in Japan and the United States: Path of symbiotic harmony and generative tension. Child Development, 71(5), 1121–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rothbaum, F., & Trommsdorff, G. (2007). Do roots and wings complement or oppose one another? The socialization of relatedness and autonomy in cultural context. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 461–489). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  94. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 749–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Self-regulation and the problem of human autonomy: Does psychology need choice, self-determination, and will? Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1557–1586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2016). Facilitating and hindering motivation, learning, and well-being in schools: Research and observations from self-determination theory. In K. R. Wentzel & D. B. Miele (Eds.), Handbook on motivation at schools (pp. 96–119). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  97. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory. Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  98. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  99. Sharabi, M. (2014). The relative centrality of life domains among Jews and Arabs in Israel: The effect of culture, ethnicity, and demographic variables. Community, Work and Family, 17(2), 219–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Siegle, D., & McCoach, D. B. (2005). Making a difference: Motivating gifted students who are not achieving. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(1), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Soenens, B., Park, S. Y., Vansteenkiste, M., & Mouratidis, A. (2012a). Perceived parental psychological control and adolescent depressive experiences: A cross-cultural study with Belgian and South Korean adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35(2), 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Soenens, B., Sierens, E., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., & Dochy, F. (2012b). Psychologically controlling teaching: Examining outcomes, antecedents, and mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 108–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 30, 74–99. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Luyten, P. (2010). Toward a domain-specific approach to the study of parental psychological control: Distinguishing between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control. Journal of Personality, 78, 217–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stewart, S. M., Bond, M. H., Ho, L. M., Zaman, R. M., Dar, R., & Anwar, M. (2000). Perceptions of parents and adolescent outcomes in Pakistan. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18(3), 335–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Su, Y. L., & Reeve, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of intervention programs designed to support autonomy. Educational Psychology Review, 23(1), 159–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Triandis, H. C. (1999). Cross-cultural psychology. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2(1), 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vallerand, R. J., Fortier, M., & Guay, F. (1999). Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high school dropout. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(5), 1161–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vallerand, R. J., Gagné, F., Senecal, C., & Pelletier, L. G. (1994). A comparison of school intrinsic motivation and perceived competence of gifted and regular students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 38(4), 172–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). On psychological growth and vulnerability: Basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 23, 263–280. doi: 10.1037/a0032359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vansteenkiste, M., Zhou, M., Lens, W., & Soenens, B. (2005). Experiences of autonomy and control among Chinese learners: Vitalizing or immobilizing? Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 468–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Volet, S. (2001). Emerging trends in recent research on motivation in learning contexts. In S. Volet, & S. Javela (Eds.), Motivation in learning contexts: Theoretical advances and methodological implications (pp. 319–334). Pergamon, an Imprint of Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  113. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wu, P., Robinson, C. C., Yang, C., Hart, C. H., Olsen, S. F., Porter, C. L., et al. (2002). Similarities and differences in mothers’ parenting of preschoolers in China and the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(6), 481–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yamauchi, H., & Tanaka, K. (1998). Relations of autonomy, self-referenced beliefs, and self-regulated learning among Japanese children. Psychological Reports, 82(3), 803–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kaye Academic College of EducationBeer-ShevaIsrael

Personalised recommendations