Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 179–193 | Cite as

Autonomous and controlled reasons underlying self-approach and self-avoidance goals and educational outcomes

  • Nicolas Gillet
  • Tiphaine Huyghebaert
  • Servane Barrault
  • Emilie Bucourt
  • Guillaume Gimenes
  • Axel Maillot
  • Aurélie Poulin
  • Olivier Sorel
Article

Abstract

Based on the new 3 × 2 achievement goal model, the first purpose of this prospective research was to examine the relation of self-approach and self-avoidance goals to four educational outcomes, namely intentions of dropping out, educational satisfaction, self-efficacy, and achievement. We also considered the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying these self-based goals in order to investigate whether self-approach and self-avoidance goals, as well as their underlying reasons, related to outcomes. Data was collected from 330 students, at two time points. Our findings showed that self-approach and self-avoidance goals did not explain changes in outcomes, with the exception of the significant relationship between self-avoidance goals and educational satisfaction. The present results also revealed that the autonomous and controlled motivations underlying achievement goals were more strongly related to changes in all four educational outcomes than was the endorsement of goals themselves. Theoretical implications and research perspectives are discussed.

Keywords

Achievement goal theory Self-determination theory College students Educational satisfaction Achievement 

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Baranik, L. E., Barron, K. E., & Finney, S. J. (2010a). Examining specific versus general measures of achievement goals. Human Performance, 23, 155–172. doi: 10.1080/08959281003622180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baranik, L. E., Stanley, L. J., Bynum, B. H., & Lance, C. E. (2010b). Examining the construct validity of mastery-avoidance achievement goals: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 23, 265–282. doi: 10.1080/08959285.2010.488463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cho, Y., Weinstein, C. E., & Wicker, F. (2011). Perceived competence and autonomy as moderators of the effects of achievement goal orientations. Educational Psychology, 31, 393–411. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2011.560597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. David, A. P. (2014). Analysis of the separation of task-based and self-based achievement goals in a Philippine sample. Psychological Studies, 59, 365–373. doi: 10.1007/s12646-014-0266-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dull, R. B., Schleifer, L. L. F., & McMillan, J. J. (2015). Achievement goal theory: The relationship of accounting students’ goal orientations with self-efficacy, anxiety, and achievement. Accounting Education, 24, 152–174. doi: 10.1080/09639284.2015.1036892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169–189. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461–475. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 632–648. doi: 10.1037/a0023952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Friedel, J. M., Cortina, K. S., Turner, J. C., & Midgley, C. (2007). Achievement goals, efficacy beliefs and coping strategies in mathematics: The roles of perceived parent and teacher goal emphases. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32, 434–458. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.10.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Friedel, J. M., Cortina, K. S., Turner, J. C., & Midgley, C. (2010). Changes in efficacy beliefs in mathematics across the transition to middle school: Examining the effects of perceived teacher and parent goal emphases. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 102–114. doi: 10.1037/a0017590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaudreau, P. (2012). Goal self-concordance moderates the relationship between achievement goals and indicators of academic adjustment. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 827–832. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillet, N., Berjot, S., Vallerand, R. J., & Amoura, S. (2012). The role of autonomy support and motivation in the prediction of interest and dropout intentions in sport and education settings. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 34, 278–286. doi: 10.1080/01973533.2012.674754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gillet, N., Lafrenière, M.-A. K., Vallerand, R. J., Huart, I., & Fouquereau, E. (2014). The effects of autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach goals on well-being: A process model. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 154–174. doi: 10.1111/bjso.12018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gillet, N., Lafrenière, M.-A. K., Huyghebaert, T., & Fouquereau, E. (2015). Autonomous and controlled reasons underlying achievement goals: Implications for the 3 × 2 achievement goal model in educational and work settings. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 858–875. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9505-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang, C. (2011). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 359–388. doi: 10.1007/s10648-011-9155-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hulleman, C. S., Schrager, S. M., Bodmann, S. M., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2010). A meta-analytic review of achievement goal measures: Different labels for the same constructs or different constructs with similar labels? Psychological Bulletin, 136, 422–449. doi: 10.1037/a0018947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lüftenegger, M., Kollmayer, M., Bergsmann, E., Jöstl, G., Spiel, C., & Schober, B. (2016). Mathematically gifted students and high achievement: The role of motivation and classroom structure. High Ability Studies, 26, 227–243. doi: 10.1080/13598139.2015.1095075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Martin, A. J. (2006). Personal bests (PBs): A proposed multidimensional model and empirical analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 803–825. doi: 10.1348/000709905X55389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mascret, N., Elliot, A. J., & Cury, F. (2015). The 3 × 2 achievement goal questionnaire for teachers. Advance online publication. Educational Psychology. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2015.1096324.Google Scholar
  23. Méndez-Giménez, A., Cecchini-Estrada, J. A., Fernández-Río, J., Méndez-Alonso, D., & Prieto-Saborit, J. A. (2016). 3x2 achievement goals, self-determined motivation and life satisfaction in secondary education. Advance online publication. Revista de Psicodidáctica. doi: 10.1387/RevPsicodidact.15035.Google Scholar
  24. Michou, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Mouratidis, A., & Lens, W. (2014). Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 650–666. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Michou, A., Matos, L., Gargurevich, R., Herrera, D., & Gumus, B. (2016). Building on the enriched hierarchical model of achievement motivation: Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying mastery goals. Psychologica Belgica, 56, 269–287. doi: 10.5334/pb.281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moller, A. C., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). Choice and ego-depletion: The moderating role of autonomy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1024–1036. doi: 10.1177/0146167206288008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 544–555. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.92.3.544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pintrich, P. R., & de Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33–40. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Poortvliet, P. M., Anseel, F., & Theuwis, F. (2015). Mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals and their relation with exhaustion and engagement at work: The roles of emotional and instrumental support. Work and Stress, 29, 150–170. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2015.1031856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Senko, C., & Freund, A. M. (2015). Are mastery-avoidance achievement goals always detrimental? An adult development perspective. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 477–488. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9474-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46, 26–47. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2011.538646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shimazu, A., Schaufeli, W. B., Kamiyama, K., & Kawakami, N. (2015). Workaholism vs. work engagement: The two different predictors of future well-being and performance. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 18–23. doi: 10.1007/s12529-014-9410-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stoeber, J., Haskew, A. E., & Scott, C. (2015). Perfectionism and exam performance: The mediating effect of task-approach goals. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 171–176. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.10.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vallerand, R. J., Fortier, M. S., & Guay, F. (1997). Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high school dropout. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1161–1176. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.5.1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van Yperen, N. W., Blaga, M., & Postmes, T. (2015). A meta-analysis of the impact of situationally induced achievement goals on task performance. Human Performance, 28, 165–182. doi: 10.1080/08959285.2015.1006772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. VandeWalle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal orientation instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57, 995–1015. doi: 10.1177/0013164497057006009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vansteenkiste, M., Mouratidis, A., & Lens, W. (2010a). Detaching reasons from aims: Fair play and well-being in soccer as a function of pursuing performance-approach goals for autonomous or controlling reasons. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 217–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vansteenkiste, M., Smeets, S., Soenens, B., Lens, W., Matos, L., & Deci, E. L. (2010b). Autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach goals: Their relations to perfectionism and educational outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 333–353. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9188-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Elliot, A. J., Soenens, B., & Mouratidis, A. (2014a). Moving the achievement goal approach one step forward: Towards a systematic examination of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 49, 153–174. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2014.928598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vansteenkiste, M., Mouratidis, A., Van Riet, T., & Lens, W. (2014b). Examining correlates of game-to-game variation in volleyball players’ achievement goal pursuit and underlying autonomous and controlling reasons. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36, 131–145. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2012-0271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Hudy, M. J. (1997). Overall job satisfaction: How good are single-item measures? Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 247–252. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolas Gillet
    • 1
  • Tiphaine Huyghebaert
    • 1
  • Servane Barrault
    • 1
  • Emilie Bucourt
    • 2
  • Guillaume Gimenes
    • 1
  • Axel Maillot
    • 1
  • Aurélie Poulin
    • 1
  • Olivier Sorel
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de psychologie, UFR Arts et Sciences HumainesUniversité François-Rabelais de ToursTours Cedex 1France
  2. 2.Département de psychologieUFR SHS Université Grenoble AlpesSaint-Martin-d’HèresFrance

Personalised recommendations