Advertisement

Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 281–301 | Cite as

Parental discipline practices and locus of control: relationship to bullying and victimization experiences of elementary school students

  • Constantinos M. KokkinosEmail author
  • Georgia Panayiotou
Article

Abstract

This study examined the association between parenting locus of control, discipline practices, and bullying and victimization experiences of elementary school children. A total of 186 children and 160 parents responded to structured questionnaires, assessing parenting locus of control and discipline practices among the parents, and bullying and victimization experiences among the children. Results indicated that parental discipline practices were correlated with specific dimensions of parenting locus of control. Although parental characteristics did not seem to predict children’s behavior, the reverse was partially supported, in that involvement in bullying explained a small amount of variance in parenting practices. More importantly, parenting locus of control dimensions were significantly predictive of discipline practices, such that the more external the locus of control, the less effective the discipline practices (i.e. punishment and inconsistency) used by parents. It appears that parenting locus of control needs to be taken into consideration when attempting to understand parenting behavior.

Keywords

parenting locus of control discipline practices bullying victimization students 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andreou E. (2000). Bully/victim problems and their association with psychological constructs in 8- to 12-year-old Greek Schoolchildren. Aggressive Behavior 26: 49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin S., Joseph S. (1996). Assessment of bully/victim problems in 8 to 11 year-olds. British Journal of Educational Psychology 66: 447–456Google Scholar
  3. Baldry A.C., Farrington D.P. (2000). Bullies and delinquents: Personal characteristics and parental styles. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 10: 17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber B.K., Olsen J.E., Shagle S.C. (1994). Associations between parental psychological and behavioural control and youth internalised and externalised behaviors. Child Development 65: 1120–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernstein J.Y., Watson M.W. (1997). Children who are targets of bullying. A victim pattern. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12: 483–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bond L., Carlin J.B., Thomas L., Rubin K., Patton G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. British Medical Journal 323: 480–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boulton M.J., Underwood K. (1992). Bully/victim problems among middle school children. British Jouunal of Educational Psychology 62: 73–78Google Scholar
  8. Bowers L., Smith P.K., Binney V. (1992). Cohesion and power in the families of children involved in bully/victim problems at school. Journal of Family Therapy, 14: 371–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowers L., Smith P.K., Binney V. (1994). Perceived family relationships of bullies, victims and bully/victims in middle childhood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 11: 215–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bugenthal D.B., Blue J., Cruzcosa M. (1989). Perceived control over care giving outcomes: Implications for child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 25: 532–539Google Scholar
  11. Campis L.K., Lyman R.D., Prentice-Dunn S. (1986). The parenting locus of control scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 15: 260–267Google Scholar
  12. Cerezo M.A., D’Ocon A. (1995). Maternal inconsistent socialization: An interactional pattern in maltreated children. Child Abuse Review 4: 14–35Google Scholar
  13. Chilcoat H., Breslau N., Anthoni J.C. (1996). Impact of parent monitoring on initiation of drug use through late childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35: 91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crick N.R., Grotpeter J.K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social–psychological adjustment. Child Development 66: 710–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demetriou, A., Kapardis, A., Panayiotou, G., & Kazi, S. (2000). Unpublished questionnaire.Google Scholar
  16. Dodge K.A., Bates J.E., Pettit G.S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science 250: 1678–1683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dumas J.E., LaFreniere P.J., Serketich W.J. (1995). ‘Balance of power’: A transactional analysis of control in mother–child dyads involving socially competent, aggressive, and anxious children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 104: 104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Espelage D.L., Bosworth K., Simon T.R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviours in early adolescence. Journal of Counselling and Development 78: 326–333Google Scholar
  19. Farrington D.P., Hawkins J.D. (1991). Predicting participation, early onset and later persistence in officially recorded offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 1: 1–33Google Scholar
  20. Finnegan R.A., Hodges E.V.E., Perry D.G. (1998). Victimization by peers: Associations of children’s reports of mother–child interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75: 1076–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haapasalo J., Pokela E. (1999). Child-rearing and child abuse antecedents of criminality. Aggression and Violent Behavior 4: 107–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hagekull B., Bohlin G., Hammarberg A. (2001). The role of parental perceived control in child development: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development 25: 429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harter, S. (1985). The self-perception profile for children: Revision of the perceived competence scale for children. Manual. Denver, CO: University of Denver.Google Scholar
  24. Huesmann L.R., Eron L.D. (1992). Childhood aggression and adult criminality. In: McCord J.(eds) Facts, frameworks, and forecasts. Advances in criminological theory Vol 3. New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers, pp. 137 – 156Google Scholar
  25. Janssens J. (1994). Authoritarian child rearing, parental locus of control, and the child’s behaviour style. International Journal of Behavioral Development 17: 485–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaltiala-Heino R., Rimpelä, M., Rantanen P., Rimpelä A. (2000). Bullying at school–an indicator of adolescents at risk for mental disorders. Journal of Adolescence 23: 661–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karatzias A., Power K.G., Swanson V. (2002). Bullying and victimization in Scottish secondary schools: Same or separate entities?. Aggressive Behavior 28: 45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kochanska G., Aksan N. (1995). Mother–child mutually positive affect, the quality of child compliance to requests and prohibitions, and maternal control as correlates of early internalisation. Child Development 66: 236–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kochenderfer B.J., Ladd G.W. (1997). Victimized children’s response to peers’ aggression: Behaviors associated with reduced versus continued victimization. Developmental Psychopathology 9: 59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kokkinos, C.M., & Logginidou, E. (2005). Perceived parental rearing behaviors among elementary school children involved in bullying and victimization. Paper presented at the 27th International School Psychology Association (ISPA) Colloquium, Athens, 13–17/7/2005.Google Scholar
  31. Kokkinos C.M., Panayiotou G. (2004a). H \({\varepsilon \pi \acute{\iota} \delta \rho \alpha \sigma \eta \quad \tau \omega \nu \quad \pi \varepsilon \pi o\iota \theta \acute{\eta} \sigma \varepsilon \omega \nu \quad \tau \omega \nu \quad \gamma o\nu \acute{\varepsilon} \omega \nu \quad \sigma \chi \varepsilon \tau \iota \kappa \acute{\alpha} \quad \mu \varepsilon \quad \tau o\nu \quad \acute{\varepsilon} \lambda \varepsilon \gamma \chi o \quad \tau \eta \varsigma \quad \pi \alpha \iota \delta \iota \kappa \acute{\eta} \varsigma\,\,\sigma\upsilon \mu \pi \varepsilon \rho \iota \varphi o\rho \acute{\alpha} \varsigma \quad \sigma \tau \eta \nu \quad \varepsilon \varphi \alpha \rho \mu o\gamma \acute{\eta} \quad \pi \rho \alpha \kappa \tau \iota \kappa \acute{\omega} \nu \quad \pi \varepsilon \iota \theta \alpha \rho \chi \acute{\iota} \alpha \varsigma}\) [Effects of parental beliefs regarding the control of children’s behavior on discipline practices]. Psychology: The Journal of the Hellenic Psychological Society 11: 571–584Google Scholar
  32. Kokkinos C.M., Panayiotou G. (2004b). Predicting bullying and victimization among early adolescents: Associations with disruptive behavior disorders. Aggressive Behavior 30: 520–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumpulailen K., Räsänen E., Henttonen I. (1999). Children involved in bulling: Psychological disturbance and the persistence of the involvement. Child Abuse & Neglect 23: 1253–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lovejoy M.C., Verda M.R., Hays C.E. (1997). Convergent and discriminant validity of measures of parenting efficacy and control. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 26: 366–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Makri-Botsari, E. (2001). How I perceive myself II. Questionnaire for the assessment of self-perception and self-esteem of upper elementary school students. Greek Edition of the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter). Athens: Ellinika Grammata.Google Scholar
  36. McCord J. (1988). Parental behavior in the cycle of aggression. Psychiatry 51: 14–55Google Scholar
  37. McDermott P.A. (1995). Sex, race, class, and other demographics as explanations for children’s ability and adjustment: A National appraisal. Journal of School Psychology 33: 75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morton T.L. (1997). The relationship between parental locus of control and children’s perceptions of control. The Journal of Genetic Psychology 158: 216–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mouton P.Y., Tuma J.M. (1988). Stress, locus of control, and role satisfaction in clinic and control mothers. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 17: 217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mynard H., Joseph S. (1997). Bully/victim problems and their association with Eysenck’s personality dimensions in 8 to 13 year-olds. British Journal of Educational Psychology 67: 51–54Google Scholar
  41. Nansel T.R., Overpeck M.D., Pilla R.S., Ruan J., Simons-Morton B., Scheidt P.C. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285: 2094–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Natvig G.K., Albrektsen G., Qvarnstrom U. (2001). School-related stress experience as a risk factor for bullying behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 30: 561–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Naylor P., Cowie H., del Rey R. (2001). Coping strategies of secondary school children in response to being bullied. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review 6: 114–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Neary A., Joseph S. (1994). Peer victimization and its relationship to self-concept and depression among schoolchildren. Personality and Individual Differences 16: 183–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Leary S.G., Slep A.M.S., Reid M.J. (1999). A longitudinal study of mothers’ overreactive discipline and toddlers’ externalizing behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27: 331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Olweus D. (1992). Bullying among schoolchildren: Intervention and prevention. In: DeV. Peters R., McMahon R.J., Quinsey V.L. (eds) Aggression and violence throughout the life span. Newbury Park, Sage, pp. 100–125Google Scholar
  47. Olweus D. (1993). Bullying in schools: What we know and what we can do. Oxford, Basil BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  48. Olweus D. (1994). Annotation: Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 35: 1171–1190Google Scholar
  49. Parcel T.L., Menaghan E.G. (1993). Family social capital and children’s behavior problems. Social Psychology 56: 120–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Patterson G.R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene OR, CastaliaGoogle Scholar
  51. Patterson G.R., DeBaryshe B.D., Ramsey E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist 44: 329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Patterson G.R., Reid J.B., Dishion T.J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene OR, CastaliaGoogle Scholar
  53. Pavlou S. (1999). Unified educational legislation and pension law. Nicosia, OELMEKGoogle Scholar
  54. Pellegrini A.D. (1998). Bullies and victims at school: A review and call for research. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 19: 165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pellegrini A.D., Bartini M., Brooks F. (1999). School bullies, victims, and aggressive victims: Factors relating to group affiliation and victimization in early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology 91: 216–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rey J.M. (1995). Perceptions of poor maternal care are associated with adolescent depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 34: 95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rican P., Klicperova M., Koucka T. (1993). Families of bullies and their victims: A children’s view. Studia Psychologica 35: 261–266Google Scholar
  58. Rigby K. (1993). School children’s perceptions of their families and parents as a function of peer relations. Journal of Genetic Psychology 154: 501–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roberts M.W., Joe V.C., Rowe-Halbert A. (1992). Oppositional child behaviour and parental locus of control. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 21: 170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rothbaum F., Weisz J.R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalising behavior in non-clinical samples: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 116: 55–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectations for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No.609).Google Scholar
  62. Rotter J.B. (1982). The development and application of social learning theory. New York, PraegerGoogle Scholar
  63. Schwartz, D. (1993, April). Antecedents of aggression and peer victimization. In D. Schwartz (Chair), Chronic peer victimization: Family factors, peer group correlates, and developmental outcomes. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  64. Schwartz D. (2000). Subtypes of victims and aggressors in children’s peer groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 28: 181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schwartz D., Dodge K.A., Pettit G.S., Bates J.E. (1997). The early socialization of aggressive victims of bullying. Child Development 68: 665–675Google Scholar
  66. Schwartz D., Proctor L.J., Chien D.H. (2001). The aggressive victim of bullying: Emotional and behavioural disregulation as a pathway to victimization by peers. In: Juvonen J., Graham S. (eds) Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. New York, Guilford Press, pp. 147–174Google Scholar
  67. Smith P.K., Bowers L., Binney V., Cowie H. (1993). Relationships of children involved in bully/victim problems at school. In: Duck S. (eds) Learning about relationships, understanding relationship processes series. London, Sage, pp. 184–212Google Scholar
  68. Stevens V., De Bourdeaudhuij I., Van Oost P. (2002). Relationship of the family environment to children’s involvement in bully/victim problems at school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 31: 419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tanaka T. (2001). The identity formation of the victim of shunning. School Psychology International 22: 463–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Toblin R.L., Schwartz D., Gorman A.H., Abou-Ezzeddine T. (2005). Social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of aggressive victims of bullying. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 26: 329–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wentzel K.R. (1993). Does being good make the grade? Social behavior and academic competence in middle school. Journal of Educational Psychology 85: 357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wolke D., Woods S., Bloomfield L., Karstadt L. (2000). The association between direct and relational bullying and behavior problems among primary school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41: 989–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Primary EducationDemocritus University of ThraceAlexandroupolisGreece
  2. 2.University of CyprusNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations