Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 247–275 | Cite as

Values and learning approaches of students at an international university

  • Bobbie Matthews
  • Petra Lietz
  • I Gusti Ngurah Darmawan
Article

Abstract

This study indicates that values are statistically significant precursors to approaches to learning in a cohort of predominantly Bulgarian, German and Romanian students studying at a German university where the language of instruction in all subject areas is English. Values have been measured with the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz et al. 2001), and approaches to learning have been assessed by the Study Process Questionnaire (Biggs, 1987). The relationships between values and approaches to learning have been estimated by canonical correlation analysis. Results of the analysis suggest that values can be linked to learning approaches in a situation where students have left their home countries to undertake tertiary studies in a new social, cultural and educational environment. Four distinct pairings between values and learning approaches emerge whereby: (a) self-aggrandisement is linked to the achievement learning variable, (b) conservatism relates to the surface learning variable, (c) self-directedness is linked to the deep learning variable and (d) benevolent change is related to the learning strategies variable.

Keywords

values learning approaches canonical correlation analysis international students learning motivations and strategies 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allport F.H. (1924). Social psychology. Boston, Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson L.W., Krathwohl D.R. (Eds) (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, Longman.Google Scholar
  3. Bardi A., Schwartz S.H. (1996). Relations among socio-political values in eastern Europe: effects of the communist experience?. Political Psychology 17(3):525–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biggs J.B. (1976). Dimensions of study behaviour, another look at ATI. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, 68–80Google Scholar
  5. Biggs J.B. (1987). Student approaches to learning and studying. (Research Monograph). Melbourne, Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  6. Biggs, J.B. (1990a). Asian students’ approaches to learning, implications for teaching overseas students, Keynote discussion paper. 8th Australasian tertiary learning skills and language conference, 11–13 July 1990. Queensland University of Technology, 1–51.Google Scholar
  7. Biggs, J.B. (1990b). Teaching design for learning. Keynote discussion paper. HERDSA. Brisbane, 6–9 July 1990. Griffiths University.Google Scholar
  8. Biggs J.B. (1992). How and why do Hong Kong students learn? Using the Learning and Study Process Questionnaires (Education paper 14). Hong Kong, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  9. Biggs J.B. (1993). What do inventories of students’ learning processes really measure? A theoretical review and clarification. British Journal of Educational Psychology 84:272–281Google Scholar
  10. Biggs J.B. (1996a). Learning, schooling and socialization, a Chinese solution to a Western problem. In: Lau S. (eds) Growing up the Chinese way. Hong Kong, The Chinese University Press, pp 147–167Google Scholar
  11. Biggs J.B. (1996b). Misperceptions of the Confucian-heritage learning culture. In: Watkins D.A., Biggs J.B. (eds) The Chinese learner: cultural, psychological and contextual influences. Hong Kong, ACER and CERC, pp 45–67Google Scholar
  12. Biggs J.B. (1996c). Approaches to learning of Asian students, a multiple paradox. In: Pandey J., Sinha D. (eds.), Asian contributions to cross-cultural psychology. New Delhi, Sage, pp 180–199Google Scholar
  13. Biggs J.B. (1999). What the student does for enhanced learning. Higher Education Research and Development 18(1): 57–75Google Scholar
  14. Biggs J.B. (2001) Teaching across cultures. In: Salili F., Chiu C.Y., Hong Y.Y. (eds) Student motivation: the culture and context of learning (Plenum series on human exceptionality). New York, Plenum Publishers, pp 293–308Google Scholar
  15. Cooley W.W., Lohnes P.R. (1971). Multivariate data analysis. New York, WileyGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooley W.W., Lohnes P.R. (1976). Evaluation research in education. New York, Irving PublishersGoogle Scholar
  17. Entwistle N. (eds.) (1990). Handbook of educational ideas and practices. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Entwistle N., Waterson S. (1988). Approaches to studying and levels of processing in university students. British Journal of Educational Psychology 58:258–265Google Scholar
  19. Feather N.T. (1975). Values in education and society. New York, The Free Press.Google Scholar
  20. Feather N.T. (1986). Value systems across cultures. International Journal of Psychology 21: 697–715Google Scholar
  21. Feather N.T. (1998). Attitudes toward high achievers, self-esteem, and value priorities for Australian, American, and Canadian students. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 29(6): 749–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feather N.T. (1999). Values, achievement and justice. Studies in the psychology of deservingness. New York, KluwerGoogle Scholar
  23. Guttman L. (1968). A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points. Psychometrika 33: 469–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keeves J.P. (1975) The home, the school and achievement in mathematics and science. Science Education 59(4): 439–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keeves J.P. (1986). Canonical correlation analysis. International Journal of Educational Research 10(2): 164–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keeves J.P., Thomson J.D. (1997). Canonical analysis. In: Keeves J.P. (Ed.) Educational research methodology and measurement, an international handbook (2nd edn.). Oxford, Pergamon, pp 461–466Google Scholar
  27. Lai P., Biggs J.B. (1994). Who benefits from mastery learning? Contemporary Educational Psychology 19(1): 13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lietz P. (1996). Changes in reading comprehension across cultures and over time. Münster/New York, WaxmannGoogle Scholar
  29. Martön F. (1981). Phenomenography – describing the conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science 10:177–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martön F., Dall’Alba G., Tse L.K. (1996). Memorising and understanding, the keys to the paradox?. In: Watkins D.A., Biggs J.B. (eds) The Chinese learner: cultural, psychological and contextual influences. Hong Kong, ACER and CERC, pp 69–84Google Scholar
  31. Martön F., Säljö R. (1976a). On qualitative differences in learning-I, outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology 46: 4–11Google Scholar
  32. Martön F., Säljö R. (1976b). On qualitative differences in learning-II, Outcome as a function of the learner’s conception of the task. British Journal of Educational Psychology 46:115–127Google Scholar
  33. Martön F., Watkins D., Tang C. (1997). Discontinuities and continuities in the experience of learning, an interview study of high school students in Hong Kong. Learning and Instruction 7(1): 21–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matthews, B. (2004). Life values and approaches to learning: a study of university students from Confucian heritage cultures. Flinders University Institute of International Education. Research Collection, Number 12. Adelaide: Shannon Research Press.Google Scholar
  35. Murray-Harvey R. (1994). Learning styles and approaches to learning, distinguishing between concepts and instruments. British Journal of Educational Psychology 64: 373–388Google Scholar
  36. Oppenheim A.N. (1992). Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement. London, Printer PublishersGoogle Scholar
  37. Pedhazur E. (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research (3rd edn.). Orlando FL, Harcourt BraceGoogle Scholar
  38. Ramsden P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. London, RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramsden P., Entwistle N.J. (1983) Effects of academic department on students approaches to studying. British Journal of Educational Psychology 51: 368–383Google Scholar
  40. Rokeach M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York, The Free PressGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmeck R.R. (1988). Strategies and styles of learning, an investigation of varied perspectives. In: Schmeck R.R. (eds) Learning strategies and style. New York, Plenum Press, pp 317–347Google Scholar
  42. Schwartz S.H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values, theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In: Zouma M. (eds) Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25). Orland FL, Academic, pp 1–65Google Scholar
  43. Schwartz S.H. (1994a). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values?. Human values and social issues, current understanding and implications for the future. Journal of Social Issues 50(4): 19–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schwartz S.H. (1994b). Beyond individualism and collectivism, new cultural dimensions of values. In: Kim U., Triandis H.C., Kagitcibasi C., Choi S-C., Yoon G. (eds.), Individualism and collectivism, theory, method and applications. Thousand Oaks, Sage, pp 85–119Google Scholar
  45. Schwartz S.H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: applying a theory of integrated value systems. In: Seligman C., Olson J.M., Zanna P. (eds) The psychology of values: the Ontario symposium (Vol. 8). Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  46. Schwartz S.H., Bardi A. (1997) Influences of adaptation to communist rule on value priorities in Eastern Europe. Political Psychology 18(2): 385–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schwartz S.H., Bardi A., Bianchi G. (2000) Value adaptation to the imposition and collapse of communist regimes in East-Central Europe. In: Renshon S.A., Duckitt J. (eds) Political psychology: cultural and cross-cultural foundations. Basingstoke, England, Macmillan, pp 217–237Google Scholar
  48. Schwartz S.H., Bilsky W. (1987). Toward a psychological structure of human values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53: 550–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwartz S.H., Bilsky W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values: extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58(5): 878–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schwartz S.H., Boehnke K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality 38: 230–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schwartz S.H., Melech G., Lehmann A., Burgess S., Harris M., Owens V. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 32(5): 519–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schwartz S.H., Sagiv L. (1995). Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure of values. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 26(1): 92–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sellin N. (1990). PLSPATH version 3.01. program manual. Hamburg, University of Hamburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  54. Shye S. (1997). Smallest space analysis. In: Keeves J.P. (eds) Educational research methodology and measurement, an international handbook (2nd edn.). Oxford, Pergamon, pp 677–684Google Scholar
  55. Smith, P.B. & Schwartz, S.H. (1997). Values. In J.W. Berry, M.H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (2nd edn.). (Vol. 3). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon; pp. 77–118.Google Scholar
  56. Spini D. (2003). Measurement equivalents of 10 value types from the Schwartz values survey across 21 countries. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 34(1): 3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stevenson H.W., Stigler J.W. (1992). The learning gap, why our schools are failing and what we can learn from Japanese and Chinese education. New York, TouchstoneGoogle Scholar
  58. Tatsuoka M.M. (1973). Multivariate analysis in education research. In: Kerlinger F.N. (eds) Review of research in education. Itasca, Il: Peacock, pp 273–319Google Scholar
  59. Van de Geer J.P. (1971). Introduction to multivariate analysis for the social sciences. San Francisco, FreemanGoogle Scholar
  60. Vogt W.P. (1999). Dictionary of statistics and methodology: a nontechnical guide for the social sciences (2nd edn). Newbury Park, CA, SageGoogle Scholar
  61. Watkins D.A. (1996a). Learning theories and approaches, a cross-cultural perspective. In: Watkins D.A., Biggs J.B. (eds) The Chinese learner: cultural, psychological and contextual influences. Hong Kong, ACER and CERC, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  62. Watkins D.A. (1996b). Hong Kong secondary school learners, a developmental perspective. In: Watkins D.A., Biggs J.B. (eds) The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences. Hong Kong, ACER and CERC, pp 107–120Google Scholar
  63. Watkins D.A. (2003) Student learning: a cross-cultural perspective. In: Keeves J.P. (eds) Handbook of educational research in the Asia-Pacific region. Dordrecht, Netherlands, Kluwer, pp 441–462Google Scholar
  64. Willett J.B. (1989). Questions and answers in the measurement of change. In: Rothkopf E. (eds) Review of research in education 1988–1989, (Vol. 15). Washington, DC, American Educational Research Association, pp 345–422Google Scholar
  65. Willett J.B. (1997). Change, the measurement of. In: Keeves J.P. (eds) Educational research methodology and measurement, an international handbook (2nd edn). Oxford, Pergamon, pp 327–334Google Scholar
  66. Williams R.M. (1979). Changes and stability in values and value systems, a sociological perspective. In: Rokeach M. (eds) Understanding human values. New York, The Free Press, pp 15–46Google Scholar
  67. Xinran (2005). Changing faces. Guardian Weekly 173(13): 16Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bobbie Matthews
    • 1
  • Petra Lietz
    • 2
  • I Gusti Ngurah Darmawan
    • 3
  1. 1.Flinders University, Institute of International EducationAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.International University BremenBremanGermany
  3. 3.University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations