Resilient teachers: resisting stress and burnout Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Howard, S. & Johnson, B. Soc Psychol Educ (2004) 7: 399. doi:10.1007/s11218-004-0975-0 Abstract
In Australia, the incidence of teacher stress and burnout has caused serious concern. Many studies of teacher stress have focused on the dysfunctional strategies of individual teachers – in other words they have adopted a deficit approach to the problem with the focus firmly fixed on ‘what’s going wrong’. From this perspective, the failure of some teachers to cope has generally been defined as a personal rather than an institutional weakness and the solutions that have been promoted have been largely palliative or therapeutic. The study reported in this paper adopted a different approach to the question of teacher stress and burnout. Instead of asking ‘what’s going wrong’ we asked why are some teachers able to cope successfully with the same kinds of stressors that appear to defeat others – in other words, we looked at ‘what’s going right’.
References Antonucci, T. 1991 Attachment, social support, and coping with negative life events in mature adults Cummings, E. Greene, A. Karraker, K. eds. Life-span Developmental Psychology: Perspectives on Stress and Coping Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Mahwah, New Jersey Google Scholar Baggaley, R., Sulwe, J. 1999 HIV stress in primary teachers in Zambia Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77 284 288 Google Scholar Benard, B. 1991Fostering resiliency in kids: protective factors in the family, school and community Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities Portland, Oregon Google Scholar Benmansour, N. 1998 Job satisfaction, stress and coping strategies among Moroccan high school teachers Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies 3 13 33 Google Scholar
Bluett, M. (1998). The contract agenda.
The AEU News, 9--12.
Bobek, B. (2002). Teacher resiliency: a key to career longevity.
Google Scholar Borg, M.G., Falzon, J.M. 1990 Coping actions by Maltese primary school teachers Educational Research 32 50 58 Google Scholar Brown, M., Ralph, S., Brember, I. 2002 Change-linked work-related stress in British teachers Research in Education 67 1 13 Google Scholar Burns, R. 1994Introduction to Research Methods (2nd edition) Longman Cheshire Melbourne Google Scholar Chan, D. 2002 Stress, self-efficacy, social support and psychological distress among prospective teachers in Hong Kong Educational Psychology 22 557 570 Google Scholar Cherniss, C. 1980aProfessional burnout in human service organizations Praeger New York Google Scholar Cherniss, C. 1980bStaff burnout: job stress in the human services Sage Beverly Hills Google Scholar Cheuk, W., Wong, K. 1995 Stress, social support and teacher burnout in Macau Current Psychology 14 42 47 Google Scholar Cockburn, A.D. 1996 Primary teachers’ knowledge and acquisition of stress relieving strategies British Journal of Educational Psychology 66 399 410 Google Scholar
Consortium on the School-Based Promotion of Social Competence (1994). The school-based promotion of social competence: Theory, research, practice
and policy. In R. Haggerty, L.R. Sharrod, N. Garmezy, M. Rutter. (Eds.),
Stress, risk and resilience in children and adolescents: processes,
mechanisms and interventions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Della Rocca, A. & Kostanski, M. (2001) Burnout and job satisfaction
amongst Victorian secondary school teachers: a comparative look at
contract and permanent employment. Paper delivered at the ATEA
Teacher education: change of heart, mind and action, 24--26 September, Melbourne, Victoria.
DETE (S.A.) (South Australian Department of Education, Training and
The occupational health, safety, welfare and
injury management report: June--March 2001, Adelaide: S.A. Govt.
Printer. DETE (S.A.) (South Australian Department of Education, Training and Employment) 2000Making positive choices: psychological health strategies for the workplace Curriculum Resources Unit Adelaide Google Scholar Dewe, P. Leiter, M. Cox, T. eds. 2000Coping, health and organizations Taylor and Francis London Google Scholar Dinham, S. 1993 Teachers under stress Australian Educational Researcher 20 1 16 Google Scholar Dworkin, A., Saha, L.J., Hill, A.N. 2003 Teacher burnout and perceptions of a democratic school environment International Education Journal 4 108 120 Google Scholar Gall, M.D., Borg, W. R., Gall, J.P. 1996Educational research: an introduction Longman New York Google Scholar
Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress resistant children: The search for protective
factors. In J. Stevenson (Ed.),
Recent research in developmental
psychology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Book
Supplement No. 4). Gordon, K., Coscarelli, W. 1996 Recognising and fostering resilience Performance Improvement 35 14 17 Google Scholar Gore, S., d Eckenrode, J. 1994 ‘Context and process in research on risk and resilience’ Haggerty, R. Sharrod, L.R. Garmezy, N. Rutter, M. eds. Stress, risk and resilience in children and adolescents: processes, mechanisms and interventions Cambridge University Press New York Google Scholar Griffith, J., Steptoe, A., Cropley, M. 1999 An investigation of coping strategies associated with job stress in teachers British Journal of Educational Psychology 69 517 531 Google Scholar Guglielmi, R.S., Tatrow, K. 1998 Occupational stress, burnout and health in teachers: a methodological and theoretical analysis Review of Educational Research 68 61 99 Google Scholar Howard, S.M., Johnson, B.J. 2002 Participation and involvement: resilience-promoting factors for young adolescents Gollop, M. McCormack, J. eds. Children and young people’s environments Children’s Issues Centre Dunedin, New Zealand 113 128 Google Scholar Howard, S., Johnson, B. 2000a What makes the difference? Children and teachers talk about resilient outcomes for students at risk Educational Studies 26 321 327 Google Scholar Howard, S., Johnson, B. 2000bAn investigation of the role of resiliency-promoting factors in preventing adverse life outcomes during adolescence University of S.A. Adelaide Google Scholar
Howard, S. & Johnson, B. (2000c). Resilient and non-resilient behaviour in adolescents.
Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice (183). Howard, S., Johnson, B. 1999 Tracking student resilience Children Australia 24 14 23 Google Scholar Hui, E., Chan, D. 1996 Teacher stress and guidance work in Hong Kong secondary school teachers British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 24 199 212 Google Scholar Independent Education Union 1996Education and Stress. Report on the survey conducted by the Victoria and NSW/ACT Independent Education Union on workloads and perceptions of occupational stress among union members employed in Catholic schools, and Education
Offices and in Independent schools IEU Melbourne Google Scholar Jacobsson, C., Pousette, A., Thyelfors, I. 2001 Managing stress and feelings of mastery among Swedish comprehensive school teachers Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 45 37 53 Google Scholar Kay-Cheng, S. 1986 Locus of control as a moderator of teacher stress in Singapore Journal of Social Psychology 126 257 259 Google Scholar Kyriacou, C. 2001 Teacher stress: directions for future research Educational Review 53 27 35 Google Scholar Kyriacou, C. 1989 The nature and prevalence of teacher stress Cole, M. Walker, S. eds. Teaching and stress Open University Press Milton Keynes Google Scholar Le Compte, M.D., Dworkin, A.G. 1991 The who and why of teacher burnout LeCompte, M.D. Dworkin, A.G. eds. Giving up on school Corwin Press Newbury Park, Calif Google Scholar Lincoln, Y., Guba, E. 1985Naturalistic inquiry Sage Beverly Hills Google Scholar Louden, L.W. 1987Teacher stress: summary report of the joint committee of inquiry into teacher stress appointed by the minister for education and planning in W.A. Govt. Printer Perth, W.A. Google Scholar Maslach, C. 1981 Burnout: a social psychological analysis Jones, J.W. eds. The burnout syndrome London House Press Park Ridge Il Google Scholar Maslach, C. 1982Burnout -- The cost of caring Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Google Scholar Masten, A., Best, K., Garmezy, N. 1990 ‘Resilience and development: contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity’ Development and Psychopathology 2 425 444 Google Scholar Morse, J. 1989 Strategies for Sampling Morse, J. eds. Qualitative nursing research: a contemporary dialogue Aspen Publishers Maryland Google Scholar Otto, R. 1986Teachers under stress Hill of Content Melbourne Google Scholar Patton, M. 1990Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd Edition) Sage Publications California Google Scholar Pithers, R.T., Soden, R. 1998 Scottish and Australian teacher stress and strain: a comparative study British Journal of Educational Psychology 68 269 279 Google Scholar Pithers, R.T., Soden, R. 1999 Person-environment fit and teacher stress Educational Research 41 51 61 Google Scholar Punch, K.F., Tuetteman, E. 1996 Reducing teacher stress: the effects of support in the work environment Research in Education 56 63 72 Google Scholar
QSR (Qualitative Solutions and Research) (1995).
NUD$\bullet$IST v4. Bundoora, Victoria. Rigby, C., Bennett, H. 1996 Teacher stress interventions: a comparative study South African Journal of Education 16 38 45 Google Scholar Rutter, M. 1985 Resilience in the face of adversity: protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder British Journal of Psychiatry 147 598 611 Google Scholar
Rutter, M. (1984). Resilient children. Why some disadvantaged children
overcome their environments and how we can help.
Psychology Today 57--65. Rutter, M. 1980Changing youth in a changing society Harvard University Press Cambridge, Mass Google Scholar Sheffield, D., Dobbie, D., Carroll, D. 1994 Stress, social support and psychological and physical wellbeing in secondary school teachers Work and Stress 8 235 243 Google Scholar Schaufeli, W., Daamen, J. 1994 Burnout among Dutch teachers: an MBI-validity study Educational and Psychological Measurement 54 803 813 Google Scholar Silva, P. Stanton, W. eds. 1996From child to adult: the dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Oxford University Press Auckland, NZ Google Scholar Sinclair, K. 1992 Morale, satisfaction and stress in schools Turney, C. Hatton, N. Laws, K. Sinclair, K. Smith, D. eds. The school manager Allen and Unwin Sydney Google Scholar Soyibo, K. 1994 Occupational stress factors and coping strategies among Jamaican high school science teachers Research in Science and Technological Education 12 187 193 Google Scholar Horn, J., Schaufeli, W. 1997 A Canadian-Dutch comparison of teachers’ burnout Psychological Reports 81 371 383 Google Scholar Waters, E., Sroufe, L.A. 1983 Social competence as a developmental construct Developmental Review 3 779 797 Google Scholar Werner, E., Smith, R. 1990Overcoming the odds: high risk children from birth to adulthood Cornell University Press New York Google Scholar Wiersma, W. 1995Research methods in education: an introduction (6th Edition) Allyn and Bacon Boston Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004