Space Science Reviews

, 215:3 | Cite as

Pre-mission InSights on the Interior of Mars

  • Suzanne E. SmrekarEmail author
  • Philippe Lognonné
  • Tilman Spohn
  • W. Bruce Banerdt
  • Doris Breuer
  • Ulrich Christensen
  • Véronique Dehant
  • Mélanie Drilleau
  • William Folkner
  • Nobuaki Fuji
  • Raphael F. Garcia
  • Domenico Giardini
  • Matthew Golombek
  • Matthias Grott
  • Tamara Gudkova
  • Catherine Johnson
  • Amir Khan
  • Benoit Langlais
  • Anna Mittelholz
  • Antoine Mocquet
  • Robert Myhill
  • Mark Panning
  • Clément Perrin
  • Tom Pike
  • Ana-Catalina Plesa
  • Attilio Rivoldini
  • Henri Samuel
  • Simon C. Stähler
  • Martin van Driel
  • Tim Van Hoolst
  • Olivier Verhoeven
  • Renee Weber
  • Mark Wieczorek
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The InSight Mission to Mars II


The Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) Mission will focus on Mars’ interior structure and evolution. The basic structure of crust, mantle, and core form soon after accretion. Understanding the early differentiation process on Mars and how it relates to bulk composition is key to improving our understanding of this process on rocky bodies in our solar system, as well as in other solar systems. Current knowledge of differentiation derives largely from the layers observed via seismology on the Moon. However, the Moon’s much smaller diameter make it a poor analog with respect to interior pressure and phase changes. In this paper we review the current knowledge of the thickness of the crust, the diameter and state of the core, seismic attenuation, heat flow, and interior composition. InSight will conduct the first seismic and heat flow measurements of Mars, as well as more precise geodesy. These data reduce uncertainty in crustal thickness, core size and state, heat flow, seismic activity and meteorite impact rates by a factor of \(3\mbox{--}10\times\) relative to previous estimates. Based on modeling of seismic wave propagation, we can further constrain interior temperature, composition, and the location of phase changes. By combining heat flow and a well constrained value of crustal thickness, we can estimate the distribution of heat producing elements between the crust and mantle. All of these quantities are key inputs to models of interior convection and thermal evolution that predict the processes that control subsurface temperature, rates of volcanism, plume distribution and stability, and convective state. Collectively these factors offer strong controls on the overall evolution of the geology and habitability of Mars.


Mars InSight Interior Seismology Heat flow Geodesy Crust Mantle Core 



This is InSight contribution number 38. The IPGP team (IPGP contribution 3987) acknowledges support from IUF (for PL) a, d support from ANR-SIMARS, ANR-10-LABX-0023, ANR-11-IDEX-0005-02 as well as CNES. A portion of the work was supported by the InSight Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. MvD and SCS were supported by grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF-ANR project 157133 “Seismology on Mars”) and the Swiss National Supercomputing Center (CSCS) under project ID sm682. AK and DG would like to acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF-ANR project 172508 “Mapping the internal structure of Mars”). The authors thank Lara Panossian for assistance with preparing the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne E. Smrekar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Philippe Lognonné
    • 2
  • Tilman Spohn
    • 3
  • W. Bruce Banerdt
    • 1
  • Doris Breuer
    • 3
  • Ulrich Christensen
    • 4
  • Véronique Dehant
    • 5
  • Mélanie Drilleau
    • 2
  • William Folkner
    • 1
  • Nobuaki Fuji
    • 2
  • Raphael F. Garcia
    • 6
  • Domenico Giardini
    • 7
  • Matthew Golombek
    • 1
  • Matthias Grott
    • 3
  • Tamara Gudkova
    • 8
  • Catherine Johnson
    • 10
    • 9
  • Amir Khan
    • 7
  • Benoit Langlais
    • 11
  • Anna Mittelholz
    • 9
  • Antoine Mocquet
    • 11
  • Robert Myhill
    • 12
  • Mark Panning
    • 1
  • Clément Perrin
    • 2
  • Tom Pike
    • 13
  • Ana-Catalina Plesa
    • 3
  • Attilio Rivoldini
    • 5
  • Henri Samuel
    • 2
  • Simon C. Stähler
    • 7
  • Martin van Driel
    • 7
  • Tim Van Hoolst
    • 5
  • Olivier Verhoeven
    • 11
  • Renee Weber
    • 14
  • Mark Wieczorek
    • 15
  1. 1.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisUniv Paris Diderot-Sorbonne Paris CitéParis Cedex 13France
  3. 3.German Aerospace Center (DLR)BerlinGermany
  4. 4.Max Planck Institute for Solar System ResearchGöttingenGermany
  5. 5.Royal Observatory BelgiumBrusselsBelgium
  6. 6.Institut Superieur de l’Aeronautique et de l’EspaceToulouseFrance
  7. 7.Institut für GeophysikETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  8. 8.Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth RASMoscowRussia
  9. 9.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  10. 10.Planetary Science InstituteTucsonUSA
  11. 11.Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, UMR-CNRS 6112, Faculté des Sciences et TechniquesUniversité de NantesNantesFrance
  12. 12.School of Earth SciencesUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  13. 13.Department of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringImperial CollegeLondonUK
  14. 14.NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterHuntsvilleUSA
  15. 15.Observatoire de la Côte d’AzurNiceFrance

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