Space Science Reviews

, Volume 212, Issue 1–2, pp 193–248 | Cite as

Heliosheath Processes and the Structure of the Heliopause: Modeling Energetic Particles, Cosmic Rays, and Magnetic Fields

  • N. V. PogorelovEmail author
  • H. Fichtner
  • A. Czechowski
  • A. Lazarian
  • B. Lembege
  • J. A. le Roux
  • M. S. Potgieter
  • K. Scherer
  • E. C. Stone
  • R. D. Strauss
  • T. Wiengarten
  • P. Wurz
  • G. P. Zank
  • M. Zhang


This paper summarizes the results obtained by the team “Heliosheath Processes and the Structure of the Heliopause: Modeling Energetic Particles, Cosmic Rays, and Magnetic Fields” supported by the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland. We focus on the physical processes occurring in the outer heliosphere, especially at its boundary called the heliopause, and in the local interstellar medium. The importance of magnetic field, charge exchange between neutral atoms and ions, and solar cycle on the heliopause topology and observed heliocentric distances to different heliospheric discontinuities are discussed. It is shown that time-dependent, data-driven boundary conditions are necessary to describe the heliospheric asymmetries detected by the Voyager spacecraft. We also discuss the structure of the heliopause, especially due to its instability and magnetic reconnection. It is demonstrated that the Rayleigh–Taylor instability of the nose of the heliopause creates consecutive layers of the interstellar and heliospheric plasma which are magnetically connected to different sources. This may be a possible explanation of abrupt changes in the galactic and anomalous cosmic ray fluxes observed by Voyager 1 when it was crossing the heliopause structure for a period of about one month in the summer of 2012. This paper also discusses the plausibility of fitting simulation results to a number of observational data sets obtained by in situ and remote measurements. The distribution of magnetic field in the vicinity of the heliopause is discussed in the context of Voyager measurements. It is argued that a classical heliospheric current sheet formed due to the Sun’s rotation is not observed by in situ measurements and should not be expected to exist in numerical simulations extending to the boundary of the heliosphere. Furthermore, we discuss the transport of energetic particles in the inner and outer heliosheath, concentrating on the anisotropic spatial diffusion diffusion tensor and the pitch-angle dependence of perpendicular diffusion and demonstrate that the latter can explain the observed pitch-angle anisotropies of both the anomalous and galactic cosmic rays in the outer heliosheath.


Heliopause and solar wind termination Heliosphere and interstellar medium interaction Cosmic rays Particle acceleration and transport 



We are grateful to the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, that supported two meetings for an international team on the topic ‘Heliosheath Processes and Structure of the Heliopause: Modeling Energetic Particles, Cosmic Rays, and Magnetic Fields’ supported by the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland. The work of the USA team was supported, in part, by NASA grants NNX14AJ53G, NNX14AF41G, NNX14AF43G, NNX15AN72G, and NNX16AG83G, and DOE Grant DE-SC0008334. It was also partially supported by the IBEX mission as a part of NASA’s Explorer program. We acknowledge NSF PRAC award ACI-1144120 and related computer resources from the Blue Waters sustained-petascale computing project. Supercomputer time allocations were also provided on SGI Pleiades by NASA High-End Computing Program award SMD-15-5860 and on Stampede by NSF XSEDE project MCA07S033. The work of HF, MSP, KS and RDS was partly carried out within the framework of the bilateral BMBF-NRF-project “Astrohel” (01DG15009) funded by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung. The responsibility of the contents of this work is with the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. V. Pogorelov
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Fichtner
    • 2
  • A. Czechowski
    • 3
  • A. Lazarian
    • 4
  • B. Lembege
    • 5
  • J. A. le Roux
    • 1
  • M. S. Potgieter
    • 6
  • K. Scherer
    • 2
  • E. C. Stone
    • 7
  • R. D. Strauss
    • 6
  • T. Wiengarten
    • 2
  • P. Wurz
    • 8
  • G. P. Zank
    • 1
  • M. Zhang
    • 9
  1. 1.The University of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Theoretische Physik IVRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany
  3. 3.Space Research CentreWarsawPoland
  4. 4.University of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  5. 5.Labor. Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS)GuyancourtFrance
  6. 6.North-West UniversityCampus PotchefstroomSouth Africa
  7. 7.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  8. 8.Universität BernBernSwitzerland
  9. 9.Florida Institute of TechnologyMelbourneUSA

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