Modelling Jets, Tori and Flares in Pulsar Wind Nebulae
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In this contribution we review the recent progress in the modelling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN). We start with a brief overview of the relevant physical processes in the magnetosphere, the wind-zone and the inflated nebula bubble. Radiative signatures and particle transport processes obtained from 3D simulations of PWN are discussed in the context of optical and X-ray observations. We then proceed to consider particle acceleration in PWN and elaborate on what can be learned about the particle acceleration from the dynamical structures called GwispsG observed in the Crab nebula. We also discuss recent observational and theoretical results of gamma-ray flares and the inner knot of the Crab nebula, which had been proposed as the emission site of the flares. We extend the discussion to GeV flares from binary systems in which the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind from a companion star. The chapter concludes with a discussion of solved and unsolved problems posed by PWN.
KeywordsFlare Current Sheet Termination Shock Crab Nebula Pulsar Wind
OP is supported by the ERC synergy grant “BlackHoleCam: imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes” (Grant No. 610058). BO acknowledges support from the INFN—TEONGRAV initiative (local PI: Luca Del Zanna) and from the University of Florence grant “Fisica dei plasmi relativistici: toeria e applicazioni moderne”. Support for AL was provided by an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, NASA ATP Grant NNX14AH35G and NSF Collaborative Research Grant 1411920 and CAREER grant 1455342.
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