Space Science Reviews

, Volume 211, Issue 1–4, pp 5–95 | Cite as

Selection of the InSight Landing Site

  • M. Golombek
  • D. Kipp
  • N. Warner
  • I. J. Daubar
  • R. Fergason
  • R. L. Kirk
  • R. Beyer
  • A. Huertas
  • S. Piqueux
  • N. E. Putzig
  • B. A. Campbell
  • G. A. Morgan
  • C. Charalambous
  • W. T. Pike
  • K. Gwinner
  • F. Calef
  • D. Kass
  • M. Mischna
  • J. Ashley
  • C. Bloom
  • N. Wigton
  • T. Hare
  • C. Schwartz
  • H. Gengl
  • L. Redmond
  • M. Trautman
  • J. Sweeney
  • C. Grima
  • I. B. Smith
  • E. Sklyanskiy
  • M. Lisano
  • J. Benardini
  • S. Smrekar
  • P. Lognonné
  • W. B. Banerdt
Article

Abstract

The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation (\({\leq}{-}2.5\ \mbox{km}\) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S–5°N and later 3°N–5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ∼600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ∼5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

Keywords

Mars InSight, Landing Site Surface characteristics Landing ellipse Corinto secondaries Rocks Terrains, Surface slope Regolith Radar 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Research described in this paper was partially done by the InSight Project, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Production of derived data products and support for the Council of Atmospheres and the Council of Terrains was provided by the InSight Project. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) supported the production of HRSC mosaics. We thank S. Kannan, L. Maki, K. Smyth, D. Hernandez, V. Carranza, E. Bondi, R. Domholdt, A. Davis, M. Wray, S. Melady, W. Painter, C. Hundal, and M. Bouchard for help processing data and maps. We also thank B. Knapmeyer-Endrun, V. Ansan Mangold, K. Herkenhoff and C. Dundas for comments on an earlier draft. M. Grott provided helpful discussions on the interaction of the mole with subsurface rocks. This paper is InSight Contribution Number 17.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Golombek
    • 1
  • D. Kipp
    • 1
  • N. Warner
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. J. Daubar
    • 1
  • R. Fergason
    • 3
  • R. L. Kirk
    • 3
  • R. Beyer
    • 4
  • A. Huertas
    • 1
  • S. Piqueux
    • 1
  • N. E. Putzig
    • 5
    • 6
  • B. A. Campbell
    • 7
  • G. A. Morgan
    • 7
  • C. Charalambous
    • 8
  • W. T. Pike
    • 8
  • K. Gwinner
    • 9
  • F. Calef
    • 1
  • D. Kass
    • 1
  • M. Mischna
    • 1
  • J. Ashley
    • 1
  • C. Bloom
    • 1
    • 10
    • 11
  • N. Wigton
    • 1
    • 12
  • T. Hare
    • 3
  • C. Schwartz
    • 1
  • H. Gengl
    • 1
  • L. Redmond
    • 1
    • 13
  • M. Trautman
    • 1
    • 14
  • J. Sweeney
    • 2
  • C. Grima
    • 13
  • I. B. Smith
    • 5
    • 6
  • E. Sklyanskiy
    • 1
  • M. Lisano
    • 1
  • J. Benardini
    • 1
  • S. Smrekar
    • 1
  • P. Lognonné
    • 15
  • W. B. Banerdt
    • 1
  1. 1.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesState University of New York at GeneseoGeneseoUSA
  3. 3.Astrogeology Science CenterU.S. Geological SurveyFlagstaffUSA
  4. 4.Sagan Center at the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA
  5. 5.Southwest Research InstituteBoulderUSA
  6. 6.Planetary Science InstituteLakewoodUSA
  7. 7.NASM CEPSSmithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA
  8. 8.Department of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringImperial CollegeLondonUK
  9. 9.German Aerospace Center (DLR)Institute of Planetary ResearchBerlinGermany
  10. 10.Occidental CollegeLos AngelesUSA
  11. 11.Central Washington UniversityEllensburgUSA
  12. 12.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  13. 13.Institute for GeophysicsUniversity of TexasAustinUSA
  14. 14.MS GIS ProgramUniversity of RedlandsRedlandsUSA
  15. 15.Institut Physique du Globe de ParisUniversité Paris SorbonneParisFrance

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