Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 202, Issue 1–4, pp 79–109 | Cite as

Galaxy Formation and Evolution

  • Kentaro NagamineEmail author
  • Naveen Reddy
  • Emanuele Daddi
  • Mark T. Sargent
Article

Abstract

In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei.

In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time.

In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the ‘Main Sequence’ paradigm. We show how the so-called ‘starbursts’ display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since \(z \sim3\) that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas.

In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

Keywords

Galaxies Galaxy formation Galaxy evolution Star formation Cosmology Metallicity Numerical simulations 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the organizers of the workshop “Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Tool to Explore the Young Universe”, and in particular Emeric Le Floc’h, for inviting us to discuss the subject in this chapter. K. Nagamine acknowledges the partial support by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26247022, the HST grant AR-12143.01-A provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

References

  1. A.R. Basu-Zych, B.D. Lehmer, A.E. Hornschemeier, T.S. Gonçalves, T. Fragos, T.M. Heckman, R.A. Overzier, A.F. Ptak, D. Schiminovich, Astrophys. J. 774, 152 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. A. Bauermeister, L. Blitz, C.-P. Ma, Astrophys. J. 717, 323 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. P.S. Behroozi, R.H. Wechsler, C. Conroy, Astrophys. J. 770, 57 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. E.F. Bell et al., Astrophys. J. 663, 834 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. E. Berger, B.E. Penprase, S.B. Cenko, S.R. Kulkarni, D.B. Fox, C.C. Steidel, N.A. Reddy, Spectroscopy of GRB 050505 at \(z = 4.275\): a \(\log N(\mbox{HI}) = 22.1\) DLA host galaxy and the nature of the progenitor. Astrophys. J. 642, 979–988 (2006). doi: 10.1086/501162 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. M. Béthermin, H. Dole, G. Lagache, D. Le Borgne, A. Penin, Astron. Astrophys. 529, A4 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. M. Béthermin, E. Daddi, G. Magdis et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 757, L23 (2012b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. M. Béthermin et al., Astron. Astrophys. 557, A66 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. M. Béthermin et al., Astron. Astrophys. 567, 103 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. M. Béthermin et al., Astron. Astrophys. 573, 113 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. S. Bird, M. Vogelsberger, D. Sijacki, M. Zaldarriaga, V. Springel, L. Hernquist, Moving-mesh cosmology: properties of neutral hydrogen in absorption. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429, 3341–3352 (2013). doi: 10.1093/mnras/sts590 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. M.R. Blanton, J. Dalcanton, D. Eisenstein, J. Loveday, M.A. Strauss, M. SubbaRao, D.H. Weinberg, J.E.J. Anderson, et al., The luminosity function of galaxies in sdss commissioning data. Astron. J. 121, 2358 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. M. Boquien, V. Buat, A. Boselli, M. Baes, G.J. Bendo, L. Ciesla, A. Cooray, L. Cortese, S. Eales, G. Gavazzi, H.L. Gomez, V. Lebouteiller, C. Pappalardo, M. Pohlen, M.W.L. Smith, L. Spinoglio, Astron. Astrophys. 539, A145 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. F. Bournaud, E. Daddi, A. Weiß, F. Renaud, C. Mastropietro, R. Teyssier, Astron. Astrophys. 575, A56 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. R.J. Bouwens, G.D. Illingworth, P.A. Oesch, I. Labbé, M. Trenti, P. van Dokkum, M. Franx, M. Stiavelli, C.M. Carollo, D. Magee, V. Gonzalez, Ultraviolet luminosity functions from 132 \(z \sim7\) and \(z \sim8\) Lyman-break galaxies in the ultra-deep HUDF09 and wide-area early release science WFC3/IR observations. Astrophys. J. 737, 90 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/737/2/90 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. R.J. Bouwens, G.D. Illingworth, P.A. Oesch, M. Trenti, I. Labbé, L. Bradley, M. Carollo, P.G. van Dokkum, V. Gonzalez, B. Holwerda, M. Franx, L. Spitler, R. Smit, D. Magee, UV luminosity functions at redshifts \(z\sim4\) to \(z \sim 10\): 10000 galaxies from HST legacy fields. Astrophys. J. 803, 34 (2015). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/34 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J. Brinchmann, S. Charlot, S.D.M. White et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 351, 1151 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. G. Bruzual, S. Charlot, Stellar population synthesis at the resolution of 2003. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 344, 1000 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. V. Buat, S. Noll, D. Burgarella, E. Giovannoli, V. Charmandaris, M. Pannella, H.S. Hwang, D. Elbaz, M. Dickinson, G. Magdis, N. Reddy, E.J. Murphy, Astron. Astrophys. 545, A141 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D. Calzetti, L. Armus, R.C. Bohlin, A.L. Kinney, J. Koornneef, T. Storchi-Bergmann, The dust content and opacity of actively star-forming galaxies. Astrophys. J. 533, 682 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. C.M. Casey, D. Narayanan, A. Cooray, Phys. Rep. 541, 45 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. H.-W. Chen, J.X. Prochaska, N.Y. Gnedin, A new constraint on the escape fraction in distant galaxies using \(\gamma\)-ray burst afterglow spectroscopy. Astrophys. J. Lett. 667, 125–128 (2007). doi: 10.1086/522306 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. J.-H. Choi, K. Nagamine, Effects of metal enrichment and metal cooling in galaxy growth and cosmic star formation history. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 393, 1595–1607 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14297.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. J.-H. Choi, K. Nagamine, Effects of cosmological parameters and star formation models on the cosmic star formation history in \({\Lambda}\mbox{CDM}\) cosmological simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 407, 1464–1476 (2010). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17029.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. J.-H. Choi, K. Nagamine, Multicomponent and variable velocity galactic outflow in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 410, 2579–2592 (2011). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17632.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. S. Cole, P. Norberg, C.M. Baugh, C.S. Frenk, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S.P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R.S. Ellis, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, D. Madgwick, J.A. Peacock, B.A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, K. Taylor, The 2dF galaxy redshift survey: near-infrared galaxy luminosity functions. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 326, 255–273 (2001). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04591.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. A. Cucchiara, M. Fumagalli, M. Rafelski, D. Kocevski, J.X. Prochaska, R.J. Cooke, G.D. Becker, Astrophys. J. 804, 51 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. E. Daddi, M. Dickinson, G. Morrison, R. Chary, A. Cimatti, D. Elbaz, D. Frayer, A. Renzini, A. Pope, D.M. Alexander, F.E. Bauer, M. Giavalisco, M. Huynh, J. Kurk, M. Mignoli, Astrophys. J. 670, 156 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. E. Daddi et al., Astrophys. J. 713, 686 (2010a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. E. Daddi et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 714, L118 (2010b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. E. Daddi et al., Astron. Astrophys. 577, A46 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. D.A. Dale, S.A. Cohen, L.C. Johnson, M.D. Schuster, D. Calzetti, C.W. Engelbracht, A. Gil de Paz, R.C. Kennicutt, J.C. Lee, A. Begum, M. Block, J.J. Dalcanton, J.G. Funes, K.D. Gordon, B.D. Johnson, A.R. Marble, S. Sakai, E.D. Skillman, L. van Zee, F. Walter, D.R. Weisz, B. Williams, S.-Y. Wu, Y. Wu, Astrophys. J. 703, 517 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. H. Dannerbauer, E. Daddi, D.A. Riechers et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 698, L178 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. R. Davé, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 385, 147 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. P. Di Matteo, F. Combes, A.-L. Melchior, B. Semelin, Astron. Astrophys. 468, 61 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. M. Dijkstra, S. Wyithe, Z. Haiman, A. Mesinger, L. Pentericci, Evolution in the escape fraction of ionizing photons and the decline in strong \(\mbox{Ly}{\alpha}\) emission from \(z > 6\) galaxies. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 440, 3309–3316 (2014). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu531 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. A. Domínguez, B. Siana, A.L. Henry, C. Scarlata, A.G. Bedregal, M. Malkan, H. Atek, N.R. Ross, J.W. Colbert, H.I. Teplitz, M. Rafelski, P. McCarthy, A. Bunker, N.P. Hathi, A. Dressler, C.L. Martin, D. Masters, Astrophys. J. 763, 145 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. D. Elbaz, M. Dickinson, H.S. Hwang et al., Astron. Astrophys. 533, A119 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. D.K. Erb, A.E. Shapley, M. Pettini, C.C. Steidel, N.A. Reddy, K.L. Adelberger, Astrophys. J. 644, 813 (2006a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. D.K. Erb, C.C. Steidel, A.E. Shapley, M. Pettini, N.A. Reddy, K.L. Adelberger, Astrophys. J. 646, 107 (2006b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. X. Fan, C.L. Carilli, B. Keating, Observational constraints on cosmic reionization. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 44, 415–462 (2006). doi: 10.1146/annurev.astro.44.051905.092514 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. R. Feldmann, N.Y. Gnedin, A.V. Kravtsov, Astrophys. J. 747, 124 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. K. Finlator, R. Davé, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 385, 2181 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. K. Finlator, R. Davé, C. Papovich, L. Hernquist, The physical and photometric properties of high-redshift galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Astrophys. J. 639, 672–694 (2006). doi: 10.1086/499349 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. M. Fioc, B. Rocca-Volmerange, Astron. Astrophys. 326, 950 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. J.P.U. Fynbo, P. Jakobsson, J.X. Prochaska, D. Malesani, C. Ledoux, A. de Ugarte Postigo, M. Nardini, P.M. Vreeswijk, K. Wiersema, J. Hjorth, J. Sollerman, H.-W. Chen, C.C. Thöne, G. Björnsson, J.S. Bloom, A.J. Castro-Tirado, L. Christensen, A. De Cia, A.S. Fruchter, J. Gorosabel, J.F. Graham, A.O. Jaunsen, B.L. Jensen, D.A. Kann, C. Kouveliotou, A.J. Levan, J. Maund, N. Masetti, B. Milvang-Jensen, E. Palazzi, D.A. Perley, E. Pian, E. Rol, P. Schady, R.L.C. Starling, N.R. Tanvir, D.J. Watson, D. Xu, T. Augusteijn, F. Grundahl, J. Telting, P.-O. Quirion, Low-resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray burst optical afterglows: biases in the swift sample and characterization of the absorbers. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 185, 526–573 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0067-0049/185/2/526 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. J.E. Geach, I. Smail, S.M. Moran, L.A. MacArthur, C.d.P Lagos, A.C. Edge, Astrophys. J. Lett. 730, L19 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. S. Genel, M. Vogelsberger, V. Springel, D. Sijacki, D. Nelson, G. Snyder, V. Rodriguez-Gomez, P. Torrey, L. Hernquist, Introducing the illustris project: the evolution of galaxy populations across cosmic time. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 445, 175–200 (2014). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu1654 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. R. Genzel et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 407, 2091 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. R. Genzel, L.J. Tacconi, F. Combes et al., Astrophys. J. 746, 69 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. R. Genzel et al., Astrophys. J. 800, 20 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. N.Y. Gnedin, A.V. Kravtsov, H. Chen, Escape of ionizing radiation from high-redshift galaxies. Astrophys. J. 672, 765–775 (2008). doi: 10.1086/524007 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. V. González, I. Labbé, R.J. Bouwens et al., Astrophys. J. 713, 115 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. J. Graciá-Carpio, E. Sturm, S. Hailey-Dunsheath et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 728, 7 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. B. Groves, J. Brinchmann, C.J. Walcher, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 419, 1402 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. C. Gruppioni, F. Pozzi, G. Zamorani, C. Vignali, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 416, 70 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. G. Hinshaw, D. Larson, E. Komatsu, D.N. Spergel, C.L. Bennett, J. Dunkley, M.R. Nolta, M. Halpern, R.S. Hill, N. Odegard, L. Page, K.M. Smith, J.L. Weiland, B. Gold, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S.S. Meyer, G.S. Tucker, E. Wollack, E.L. Wright, Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: cosmological parameter results. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 208, 19 (2013). doi: 10.1088/0067-0049/208/2/19 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. P.F. Hopkins, T.J. Cox, L. Hernquist, D. Narayanan, C.C. Hayward, N. Murray, Star formation in galaxy mergers with realistic models of stellar feedback and the interstellar medium. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 430, 1901–1927 (2013). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stt017 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. O. Ilbert, M. Salvato, E. Le Floc’h et al., Astrophys. J. 709, 644 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. I.T. Iliev, B. Ciardi, M.A. Alvarez, A. Maselli, A. Ferrara, N.Y. Gnedin, G. Mellema, T. Nakamoto, M.L. Norman, A.O. Razoumov, E.-J. Rijkhorst, J. Ritzerveld, P.R. Shapiro, H. Susa, M. Umemura, D.J. Whalen, Cosmological radiative transfer codes comparison project. I. The static density field tests. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 1057–1086 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10775.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. A.K. Inoue, I. Iwata, J.-M. Deharveng, The escape fraction of ionizing photons from galaxies at \(z = 0\mbox{--}6\). Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 1–5 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2006.00195.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. J. Jaacks, J.-H. Choi, K. Nagamine, R. Thompson, S. Varghese, Steep faint-end slopes of galaxy mass and luminosity functions at \(z\geq6\) and the implications for reionization. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 420, 1606–1620 (2012). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20150.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. J. Jaacks, R. Thompson, K. Nagamine, Impact of \(\mbox{H}_{2}\)-based star formation model on the \(z\ge6\) luminosity function and the ionizing photon budget for reionization. Astrophys. J. 766, 94 (2013). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/94 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. B.D. Johnson, D. Schiminovich, M. Seibert, M. Treyer, D.C. Martin, T.A. Barlow, K. Forster, P.G. Friedman, P. Morrissey, S.G. Neff, T. Small, T.K. Wyder, L. Bianchi, J. Donas, T.M. Heckman, Y.-W. Lee, B.F. Madore, B. Milliard, R.M. Rich, A.S. Szalay, B.Y. Welsh, S.K. Yi, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 173, 392 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. A. Karim et al., Astrophys. J. 730, 61 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. R.C. Kennicutt, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 189 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. D. Keres, M.S. Yun, J.S. Young, Astrophys. J. 582, 659 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. L.J. Kewley, S.L. Ellison, Astrophys. J. 681, 1183 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. M.D. Kistler, H. Yüksel, J.F. Beacom, A.M. Hopkins, J.S.B. Wyithe, The star formation rate in the reionization era as indicated by gamma-ray bursts. Astrophys. J. Lett. 705, 104–108 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/705/2/L104 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. E. Komatsu, K.M. Smith, J. Dunkley, C.L. Bennett, B. Gold, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, D. Larson, et al., Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: cosmological interpretation. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 192, 18 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0067-0049/192/2/18 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. X. Kong, S. Charlot, J. Brinchmann, S.M. Fall, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 769 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. M. Kriek, I. Labbé, C. Conroy, K.E. Whitaker et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 722, L64 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. M.R. Krumholz, C.F. McKee, J. Tumlinson, The star formation law in atomic and molecular gas. Astrophys. J. 699, 850–856 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/699/1/850 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. C.G. Lacey, C.M. Baugh, C.S. Frenk et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, 2 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. T. Laskar, E. Berger, R.-R. Chary, Astrophys. J. 739, 1 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. E. Le Floc’h et al., Astrophys. J. 632, 169 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. C. Ledoux, P.M. Vreeswijk, A. Smette, A.J. Fox, P. Petitjean, S.L. Ellison, J.P.U. Fynbo, S. Savaglio, Astron. Astrophys. 506, 661 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. C. Leitherer, D. Schaerer, J.D. Goldader, R.M.G. Delgado, C. Robert, D.F. Kune, D.F. de Mello, D. Devost, T.M. Heckman, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 123, 3 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. A.K. Leroy et al., Astron. J. 137, 4670 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. B. Lo Faro, P. Monaco, E. Vanzella, F. Fontanot, L. Silva, S. Cristiani, Faint Lyman-break galaxies as a crucial test for galaxy formation models. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399, 827–841 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15316.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. G.E. Magdis, E. Daddi, M. Sargent et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 758, L9 (2012a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. G.E. Magdis, E. Daddi, M. Béthermin et al., arXiv:1210.1035 (2012b)
  83. B. Magnelli, D. Elbaz, R.R. Chary et al., Astron. Astrophys. 496, 57 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. R. Maiolino, P. Cox, P. Caselli, A. Beelen, F. Bertoldi, C.L. Carilli, M.J. Kaufman, K.M. Menten, et al., First detection of [CII]158 μm at high redshift: vigorous star formation in the early universe. Astron. Astrophys. 440, 51–54 (2005). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:200500165 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. R. Maiolino, T. Nagao, A. Grazian, F. Cocchia, A. Marconi, F. Mannucci, A. Cimatti, A. Pipino, S. Ballero, F. Calura, C. Chiappini, A. Fontana, G.L. Granato, F. Matteucci, G. Pastorini, L. Pentericci, G. Risaliti, M. Salvati, L. Silva, Astron. Astrophys. 488, 463 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. F. Mannucci, G. Cresci, R. Maiolino, A. Marconi, A. Gnerucci, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 408, 2115 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. C. Maraston, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 799 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. D. Marchesini, P.G. van Dokkum, N.M. Forster Schreiber, M. Franx, I. Labbe’, S. Wuyts, The evolution of the stellar mass function of galaxies from \(z=4.0\) and the first comprehensive analysis of its uncertainties: evidence for mass-dependent evolution. ArXiv e-prints (2008) Google Scholar
  89. M. Massardi, A. Bonaldi, M. Negrello et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 532 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. D. Masters, P. McCarthy, B. Siana, M. Malkan, B. Mobasher, H. Atek, A. Henry, C.L. Martin, M. Rafelski, N.P. Hathi, C. Scarlata, N.R. Ross, A.J. Bunker, G. Blanc, A.G. Bedregal, A. Domínguez, J. Colbert, H. Teplitz, A. Dressler, Astrophys. J. 785, 153 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. I.S. McLean, C.C. Steidel, H.W. Epps, N. Konidaris, K.Y. Matthews, S. Adkins, T. Aliado, G. Brims, J.M. Canfield, J.L. Cromer, J. Fucik, K. Kulas, G. Mace, K. Magnone, H. Rodriguez, G. Rudie, R. Trainor, E. Wang, B. Weber, J. Weiss, in Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 8446 (2012) Google Scholar
  92. G.R. Meurer, T.M. Heckman, D. Calzetti, Astrophys. J. 521, 64 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. A.L. Muratov, D. Kereš, C.-A. Faucher-Giguère, P.F. Hopkins, E. Quataert, N. Murray, Gusty, gaseous flows of FIRE: galactic winds in cosmological simulations with explicit stellar feedback. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 454, 2691–2713 (2015). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv2126 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. K. Nagamine, V. Springel, L. Hernquist, M. Machacek, Photometric properties of Lyman-break galaxies at \(z= 3\) in cosmological SPH simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 350, 385–395 (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07664.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. K. Nagamine, J. Choi, H. Yajima, Effects of ultraviolet background and local stellar radiation on the H i column density distribution. Astrophys. J. Lett. 725, 219–222 (2010). doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/725/2/L219 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. C. Night, K. Nagamine, V. Springel, L. Hernquist, Lyman break galaxies at \(z=4\mbox{--}6\) in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 366, 705–716 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09730.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. K.G. Noeske, B.J. Weiner, S.M. Faber, C. Papovich, D.C. Koo, R.S. Somerville, K. Bundy, C.J. Conselice, J.A. Newman, D. Schiminovich, E. Le Floc’h, A.L. Coil, G.H. Rieke, J.M. Lotz, J.R. Primack, P. Barmby, M.C. Cooper, M. Davis, R.S. Ellis, G.G. Fazio, P. Guhathakurta, J. Huang, S.A. Kassin, D.C. Martin, A.C. Phillips, R.M. Rich, T.A. Small, C.N.A. Willmer, G. Wilson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 660, L43 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. D. Obreschkow, S. Rawlings, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1857 (2009a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. D. Obreschkow, S. Rawlings, Astrophys. J. Lett. 696, L129 (2009b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. M. Onodera et al., Astrophys. J. 822, 42 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. R.A. Overzier, T.M. Heckman, J. Wang, L. Armus, V. Buat, J. Howell, G. Meurer, M. Seibert, B. Siana, A. Basu-Zych, S. Charlot, T.S. Gonçalves, D.C. Martin, J.D. Neill, R.M. Rich, S. Salim, D. Schiminovich, Astrophys. J. Lett. 726, L7 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. J.-P. Paardekooper, F.I. Pelupessy, G. Altay, C.J.H. Kruip, The escape of ionising radiation from high-redshift dwarf galaxies. Astron. Astrophys. 530, 87 (2011). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201116841 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. D.A. Perley, A.J. Levan, N.R. Tanvir, S.B. Cenko et al., Astrophys. J. 778, 128 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. M. Pettini, S.A. Rix, C.C. Steidel, K.L. Adelberger, M.P. Hunt, A.E. Shapley, Astrophys. J. 569, 742 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Planck Collaboration, P.A.R. Ade, N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A.J. Banday, R.B. Barreiro, J.G. Bartlett et al., Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters. ArXiv e-prints (2015) Google Scholar
  106. P. Ranalli, A. Comastri, G. Setti, Astron. Astrophys. 399, 39 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. A.O. Razoumov, J. Sommer-Larsen, Ionizing radiation from \(z = 4\mbox{--}10\) galaxies. Astrophys. J. 710, 1239–1246 (2010). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/710/2/1239 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. N.A. Reddy, C.C. Steidel, A steep faint-end slope of the UV luminosity function at \(z \sim2\mbox{--}3\): implications for the global stellar mass density and star formation in low-mass halos. Astrophys. J. 692, 778–803 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/692/1/778 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. N.A. Reddy, C.C. Steidel, D. Fadda, L. Yan, M. Pettini, A.E. Shapley, D.K. Erb, K.L. Adelberger, Astrophys. J. 644, 792 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. N.A. Reddy, D.K. Erb, M. Pettini, C.C. Steidel, A.E. Shapley, Astrophys. J. 712, 1070 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. N. Reddy, M. Dickinson, D. Elbaz, G. Morrison, M. Giavalisco, R. Ivison, C. Papovich, D. Scott, V. Buat, D. Burgarella, V. Charmandaris, E. Daddi, G. Magdis, E. Murphy, B. Altieri, H. Aussel, H. Dannerbauer, K. Dasyra, H.S. Hwang, J. Kartaltepe, R. Leiton, B. Magnelli, P. Popesso, Astrophys. J. 744, 154 (2012a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. N.A. Reddy, M. Pettini, C.C. Steidel, A.E. Shapley, D.K. Erb, D.R. Law, Astrophys. J. 754, 25 (2012b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. N.A. Reddy, M. Kriek, A.E. Shapley, W.R. Freeman, B. Siana, A.L. Coil, B. Mobasher, S.H. Price, R.L. Sanders, I. Shivaei ArXiv e-prints (2015) Google Scholar
  114. G. Rodighiero, E. Daddi, I. Baronchelli, A. Cimatti, A. Renzini, H. Aussel, P. Popesso, D. Lutz, P. Andreani, S. Berta, A. Cava, D. Elbaz, A. Feltre, A. Fontana, N.M. Förster Schreiber, A. Franceschini, R. Genzel, A. Grazian, C. Gruppioni, O. Ilbert, E. Le Floch, G. Magdis, M. Magliocchetti, B. Magnelli, R. Maiolino, H. McCracken, R. Nordon, A. Poglitsch, P. Santini, F. Pozzi, L. Riguccini, L.J. Tacconi, S. Wuyts, G. Zamorani, Astrophys. J. Lett. 739, L40 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. E. Romano-Díaz, J.-H. Choi, I. Shlosman, M. Trenti, Astrophys. J. 738, L19 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. W. Rujopakarn, G.H. Rieke, D.J. Eisenstein, S. Juneau, Astrophys. J. 726, 93 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. A. Saintonge et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 415, 32 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. F. Salmi, E. Daddi, D. Elbaz et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 754, L14 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. D.B. Sanders, I.F. Mirabel, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 34, 749 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. R.L. Sanders, A.E. Shapley, M. Kriek, N.A. Reddy, W.R. Freeman, A.L. Coil, B. Siana, B. Mobasher, I. Shivaei, S.H. Price, L. de Groot, Astrophys. J. 799, 138 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. M.T. Sargent, M. Béthermin, E. Daddi, D. Elbaz, Astrophys. J. Lett. 747, L31 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. M.T. Sargent et al., Astrophys. J. 793, 19 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. S. Savaglio, K. Glazebrook, D. Le Borgne, S. Juneau, R.G. Abraham, H.-W. Chen, D. Crampton, P.J. McCarthy, R.G. Carlberg, R.O. Marzke, K. Roth, I. Jørgensen, R. Murowinski, Astrophys. J. 635, 260 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. J. Schaye, C. Dalla Vecchia, On the relation between the Schmidt and Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation laws and its implications for numerical simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 383, 1210–1222 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12639.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. J. Schaye, R.A. Crain, R.G. Bower, M. Furlong, M. Schaller, T. Theuns, C. Dalla Vecchia, C.S. Frenk, I.G. McCarthy, J.C. Helly, A. Jenkins, Y.M. Rosas-Guevara, S.D.M. White, M. Baes, C.M. Booth, P. Camps, J.F. Navarro, Y. Qu, A. Rahmati, T. Sawala, P.A. Thomas, J. Trayford, The EAGLE project: simulating the evolution and assembly of galaxies and their environments. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 446, 521–554 (2015). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu2058 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. A. Schruba, A.K. Leroy, F. Walter et al., Astron. J. 143, 138 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. M. Seibert, D.C. Martin, T.M. Heckman, V. Buat, C. Hoopes, T. Barlow, L. Bianchi, Y.-I. Byun, J. Donas, K. Forster, P.G. Friedman, P. Jelinsky, Y.-W. Lee, B.F. Madore, R. Malina, B. Milliard, P. Morrissey, S. Neff, R.M. Rich, D. Schiminovich, O. Siegmund, T. Small, A.S. Szalay, B. Welsh, T.K. Wyder, Astrophys. J. Lett. 619, L55 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. A.E. Shapley, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49, 525 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. A.E. Shapley, N.A. Reddy, M. Kriek, W.R. Freeman, R.L. Sanders, B. Siana, A.L. Coil, B. Mobasher, I. Shivaei, S.H. Price, L. de Groot, Astrophys. J. 801, 88 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. I. Shivaei, N.A. Reddy, A.E. Shapley, M. Kriek, B. Siana, B. Mobasher, A.L. Coil, W.R. Freeman, R. Sanders, S.H. Price, L. de Groot, M. Azadi ArXiv e-prints (2015) Google Scholar
  131. R. Smit, R.J. Bouwens, M. Franx, G.D. Illingworth, I. Labbé, P.A. Oesch, P.G. van Dokkum, The star formation rate function for redshift \(z\sim4\mbox{--}7\) galaxies: evidence for a uniform buildup of star-forming galaxies during the first 3 Gyr of cosmic time. Astrophys. J. 756, 14 (2012). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/756/1/14 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. B.M. Smith, R.A. Windhorst, R.A. Jansen, S.H. Cohen, L. Jiang, M. Dijkstra, A.M. Koekemoer, R. Bielby, A.K. Inoue, J.W. MacKenty, R.W. O’Connell, J.I. Silk, Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations of escaping Lyman continuum radiation from galaxies and weak AGN at redshifts \(z\sim 2.3\mbox{--}5\). ArXiv e-prints (2016) Google Scholar
  133. P.M. Solomon, D. Downes, S.J.E. Radford, J.W. Barrett, Astrophys. J. 478, 144 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. M. Sparre, O.E. Hartoog, T. Krühler, J.P.U. Fynbo, D.J. Watson, K. Wiersema, V. D’Elia, T. Zafar, P.M.J. Afonso, S. Covino, A. de Ugarte Postigo, H. Flores, P. Goldoni, J. Greiner, J. Hjorth, P. Jakobsson, L. Kaper, S. Klose, A.J. Levan, D. Malesani, B. Milvang-Jensen, M. Nardini, S. Piranomonte, J. Sollerman, R. Sánchez-Ramírez, S. Schulze, N.R. Tanvir, S.D. Vergani, R.A.M.J. Wijers, Astrophys. J. 785, 150 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. J.S. Spilker et al., Astrophys. J. 785, 149 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. V. Springel, The cosmological simulation code GADGET-2. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 364, 1105–1134 (2005). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09655.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. V. Springel, L. Hernquist, Cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations: a hybrid multiphase model for star formation. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 289–311 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06206.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. C.C. Steidel, G.C. Rudie, A.L. Strom, M. Pettini, N.A. Reddy, A.E. Shapley, R.F. Trainor, D.K. Erb, M.L. Turner, N.P. Konidaris, K.R. Kulas, G. Mace, K. Matthews, I.S. McLean ArXiv e-prints (2014) Google Scholar
  139. L.J. Tacconi et al., Nature 463, 781 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. L.J. Tacconi et al., Astrophys. J. 768, 74 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Q. Tan et al., Astrophys. J. 776, L24 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Q. Tan et al., Astron. Astrophys. 569, A98 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. N.R. Tanvir, D.B. Fox, A.J. Levan, E. Berger, K. Wiersema, J.P.U. Fynbo, A. Cucchiara, T. Krühler, N. Gehrels, J.S. Bloom, J. Greiner, P.A. Evans, E. Rol, F. Olivares, J. Hjorth, P. Jakobsson, J. Farihi, R. Willingale, R.L.C. Starling, S.B. Cenko, D. Perley, J.R. Maund, J. Duke, R.A.M.J. Wijers, A.J. Adamson, A. Allan, M.N. Bremer, D.N. Burrows, A.J. Castro-Tirado, B. Cavanagh, A. de Ugarte Postigo, M.A. Dopita, T.A. Fatkhullin, A.S. Fruchter, R.J. Foley, J. Gorosabel, J. Kennea, T. Kerr, S. Klose, H.A. Krimm, V.N. Komarova, S.R. Kulkarni, A.S. Moskvitin, C.G. Mundell, T. Naylor, K. Page, B.E. Penprase, M. Perri, P. Podsiadlowski, K. Roth, R.E. Rutledge, T. Sakamoto, P. Schady, B.P. Schmidt, A.M. Soderberg, J. Sollerman, A.W. Stephens, G. Stratta, T.N. Ukwatta, D. Watson, E. Westra, T. Wold, C. Wolf, A \(\gamma\)-ray burst at a redshift of \(z\sim8.2\). Nature 461, 1254–1257 (2009). doi: 10.1038/nature08459 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. M. Tegmark, M.A. Strauss, M.R. Blanton, K. Abazajian, S. Dodelson, H. Sandvik, X. Wang, D.H. Weinberg, I. Zehavi, N.A. Bahcall, F. Hoyle, D. Schlegel, R. Scoccimarro, M.S. Vogeley, A. Berlind, T. Budavari, A. Connolly, D.J. Eisenstein, D. Finkbeiner, J.A. Frieman, J.E. Gunn, L. Hui, B. Jain, D. Johnston, S. Kent, H. Lin, R. Nakajima, R.C. Nichol, J.P. Ostriker, A. Pope, R. Scranton, U. Seljak, R.K. Sheth, A. Stebbins, A.S. Szalay, I. Szapudi, Y. Xu, J. Annis, J. Brinkmann, S. Burles, F.J. Castander, I. Csabai, J. Loveday, M. Doi, M. Fukugita, B. Gillespie, G. Hennessy, D.W. Hogg, Ž. Ivezić, G.R. Knapp, D.Q. Lamb, B.C. Lee, R.H. Lupton, T.A. McKay, P. Kunszt, J.A. Munn, L. O’Connell, J. Peoples, J.R. Pier, M. Richmond, C. Rockosi, D.P. Schneider, C. Stoughton, D.L. Tucker, D.E. vanden Berk, B. Yanny, D.G. York, Cosmological parameters from SDSS and WMAP. Phys. Rev. D 69(10), 103501 (2004). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.103501 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. R. Thompson, K. Nagamine, J. Jaacks, J.-H. Choi, Molecular hydrogen regulated star formation in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Astrophys. J. 780, 145 (2014). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/780/2/145 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. C.A. Tremonti, T.M. Heckman, G. Kauffmann, J. Brinchmann, S. Charlot, S.D.M. White, M. Seibert, E.W. Peng, D.J. Schlegel, A. Uomoto, M. Fukugita, J. Brinkmann, Astrophys. J. 613, 898 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. P. Troncoso, R. Maiolino, V. Sommariva, G. Cresci, F. Mannucci, A. Marconi, M. Meneghetti, A. Grazian, A. Cimatti, A. Fontana, T. Nagao, L. Pentericci, Astron. Astrophys. 563, A58 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. M. Vogelsberger, S. Genel, V. Springel, P. Torrey, D. Sijacki, D. Xu, G. Snyder, D. Nelson, L. Hernquist, Introducing the Illustris Project: simulating the coevolution of dark and visible matter in the Universe. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 444, 1518–1547 (2014). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu1536 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. B.J. Weiner, A.L. Coil, J.X. Prochaska, J.A. Newman, M.C. Cooper, K. Bundy, C.J. Conselice, A.A. Dutton, et al., Ubiquitous Outflows in DEEP2 spectra of star-forming galaxies at \(z = 1.4\). Astrophys. J. 692, 187–211 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/692/1/187 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. K.E. Whitaker, M. Franx, J. Leja, P.G. van Dokkum, A. Henry, R.E. Skelton, M. Fumagalli, I.G. Momcheva, G.B. Brammer, I. Labbé, E.J. Nelson, J.R. Rigby, Astrophys. J. 795, 104 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. S.M. Wilkins, A. Bunker, W. Coulton, R. Croft, T.D. Matteo, N. Khandai, Y. Feng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 430, 2885 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. J.H. Wise, R. Cen, Ionizing photon escape fractions from high-redshift dwarf galaxies. Astrophys. J. 693, 984–999 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/693/1/984 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. S. Wuyts, N.M. Förster Schreiber, A. van der Wel et al., Astrophys. J. 742, 96 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. J.S.B. Wyithe, A.M. Hopkins, M.D. Kistler, H. Yüksel, J.F. Beacom, Determining the escape fraction of ionizing photons during reionization with the GRB-derived star formation rate. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 401, 2561–2571 (2010). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15834.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. H. Yajima, J.-H. Choi, K. Nagamine, Escape fraction of ionizing photons from high-redshift galaxies in cosmological SPH simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 412, 411–422 (2011). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17920.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. H. Yajima, I. Shlosman, E. Romano-Díaz, K. Nagamine, Observational properties of simulated galaxies in overdense and average regions at redshifts \(z\sim6\mbox{--}12\). Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 451, 418–432 (2015). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv974 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. G. Yepes, R. Kates, A. Khokhlov, A. Klypin, Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation: effects of supernova feedback. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 284, 235–256 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. A. Zanella et al., Nature 521, 54 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Theoretical Astrophysics, Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of ScienceOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Physics & AstronomyUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasLas VegasUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physics & AstronomyUniversity of California, RiversideRiversideUSA
  4. 4.CEA SaclayDSM/Irfu/Sérvice d’AstrophysiqueGif-sur-Yvette CedexFrance
  5. 5.Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations