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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 197, Issue 1–4, pp 101–150 | Cite as

Laboratory Studies Towards Understanding Comets

  • Murthy S. Gudipati
  • Ninette Abou Mrad
  • Jürgen Blum
  • Steven B. Charnley
  • Thierry Chiavassa
  • Martin A. Cordiner
  • Olivier Mousis
  • Grégoire Danger
  • Fabrice Duvernay
  • Bastian Gundlach
  • Paul Hartogh
  • Ulysse Marboeuf
  • Irakli Simonia
  • Tsitsino Simonia
  • Patrice Theulé
  • Rui Yang
Article

Abstract

This review presents some of the recent advancements in our understanding of comets facilitated by laboratory studies, need for new laboratory simulations, and predictions for future explorations. With the spacecraft Rosetta at the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, a large volume of science data is expected to follow early results that have been published recently. The most surprising of them being hard ice shell that bounced the lander Philae a couple of times before settling on the comet. Long evaded molecular nitrogen has now been detected in the comet 67P/CG. The observed density of \(470~\mbox{kg}\,\mbox{m}^{- 3}\) is in line with other comet observations, whereas the nature and composition of hydrocarbons detected on the surface are still a puzzle. Observation of D/H ratio that deviates significantly from Earth’s water D/H ratio brings back to the table the long-standing question whether or not water on Earth was delivered by comet impacts. Our review summarizes some of the critical laboratory work that helps improve our understanding of cometary interior (whether amorphous or crystalline or containing clathrates), cometary surface (rich of complex organics), cometary coma and tail (D/H ratio, negative ions, and photoluminescence). Outstanding questions are also discussed.

Keywords

Comets Laboratory Experimental Ice Volatiles Clathrates Origin of life Organics Review Isotope ratios Negative ions Coma Outgassing Origin of solar systems 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Murthy Gudipati thanks partial funding from the following NASA programs: Planetary Atmospheres, Cassini Data Analysis Programs, Spitzer Science Center, and Astrobiology Institute Node Early Habitable Environments (NASA Ames). JPL’s DRDF and R&TD funding for infrastructure of the “ice spectroscopy laboratory” is also gratefully acknowledged. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Olivier Mousis thanks the support of the \(\mbox{A}*\)MIDEX project (no. ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the “Investissements d’Avenir” French Government program, managed by the French National Research Agency (ANR). Grégoire Danger and collaborators thank funding by the French national programs “Physique Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire” (P.C.M.I, INSU), “Programme National de Planétologie” (P.N.P, INSU), “Environnements Planetaires et Origines de la Vie” (E.P.O.V, CNRS) and the “Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales” (C.N.E.S) from its exobiology program as well as the ANR project VAHIIA (Grant ANR-12-JS08-0001-01) of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Ulysse Marboeuf thanks funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation. The work of Steven B. Charnley and Martin A. Cordiner was supported by NASA’s Planetary Atmospheres Program and the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murthy S. Gudipati
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ninette Abou Mrad
    • 3
  • Jürgen Blum
    • 4
  • Steven B. Charnley
    • 5
  • Thierry Chiavassa
    • 3
  • Martin A. Cordiner
    • 5
  • Olivier Mousis
    • 6
  • Grégoire Danger
    • 3
  • Fabrice Duvernay
    • 3
  • Bastian Gundlach
    • 4
  • Paul Hartogh
    • 7
  • Ulysse Marboeuf
    • 8
  • Irakli Simonia
    • 9
  • Tsitsino Simonia
    • 9
  • Patrice Theulé
    • 3
  • Rui Yang
    • 10
    • 11
  1. 1.Science DivisionJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.IPSTUniversity of Maryland at College ParkCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Aix-Marseille UniversitéPIIM UMR-CNRS 7345MarseilleFrance
  4. 4.Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische PhysikTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany
  5. 5.Astrochemistry Laboratory, Code 691NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  6. 6.Aix-Marseille UniversitéCNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326MarseilleFrance
  7. 7.Max Planck Institute for Solar System ResearchGöttingenGermany
  8. 8.Physics Institute and Center for Space and HabitabilityUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  9. 9.Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Investigation in Cosmochemistry and Astronomy at the School of Natural Sciences and EngineeringIlia State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  10. 10.Former Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  11. 11.Chemistry DepartmentFudan UniversityShanghaiChina

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