Space Science Reviews

, Volume 192, Issue 1–4, pp 145–208 | Cite as

The Earth: Plasma Sources, Losses, and Transport Processes

  • Daniel T. Welling
  • Mats André
  • Iannis Dandouras
  • Dominique Delcourt
  • Andrew Fazakerley
  • Dominique Fontaine
  • John Foster
  • Raluca Ilie
  • Lynn Kistler
  • Justin H. Lee
  • Michael W. Liemohn
  • James A. Slavin
  • Chih-Ping Wang
  • Michael Wiltberger
  • Andrew Yau


This paper reviews the state of knowledge concerning the source of magnetospheric plasma at Earth. Source of plasma, its acceleration and transport throughout the system, its consequences on system dynamics, and its loss are all discussed. Both observational and modeling advances since the last time this subject was covered in detail (Hultqvist et al., Magnetospheric Plasma Sources and Losses, 1999) are addressed.


Magnetosphere Plasma Ionosphere Solar wind 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel T. Welling
    • 1
  • Mats André
    • 2
  • Iannis Dandouras
    • 3
  • Dominique Delcourt
    • 4
  • Andrew Fazakerley
    • 5
  • Dominique Fontaine
    • 4
  • John Foster
    • 6
  • Raluca Ilie
    • 1
  • Lynn Kistler
    • 7
  • Justin H. Lee
    • 8
  • Michael W. Liemohn
    • 1
  • James A. Slavin
    • 1
  • Chih-Ping Wang
    • 9
  • Michael Wiltberger
    • 10
  • Andrew Yau
    • 11
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Swedish Institute of Space PhysicsUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.CNRS, IRAPUniversity of ToulouseToulouseFrance
  4. 4.LPP, Ecole Polytechnique-CNRSUniversité Pierre et Marie CurieParisFrance
  5. 5.Mullard Space Science LaboratoryUniversity College LondonHolmbury St. MaryUK
  6. 6.Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory WestfordMassachusettsUSA
  7. 7.University of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  8. 8.The Aerospace CorporationEl SegundoUSA
  9. 9.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  10. 10.National Center for Atmospheric ResearchHigh Altitude ObservatoryBoulderUSA
  11. 11.University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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