Space Science Reviews

, Volume 197, Issue 1–4, pp 9–46 | Cite as

The Composition of Comets

  • Anita L. CochranEmail author
  • Anny-Chantal Levasseur-Regourd
  • Martin Cordiner
  • Edith Hadamcik
  • Jérémie Lasue
  • Adeline Gicquel
  • David G. Schleicher
  • Steven B. Charnley
  • Michael J. Mumma
  • Lucas Paganini
  • Dominique Bockelée-Morvan
  • Nicolas Biver
  • Yi-Jehng Kuan


This paper is the result of the International Cometary Workshop, held in Toulouse, France in April 2014, where the participants came together to assess our knowledge of comets prior to the ESA Rosetta Mission. In this paper, we look at the composition of the gas and dust from the comae of comets. With the gas, we cover the various taxonomic studies that have broken comets into groups and compare what is seen at all wavelengths. We also discuss what has been learned from mass spectrometers during flybys. A few caveats for our interpretation are discussed. With dust, much of our information comes from flybys. They include in situ analyses as well as samples returned to Earth for laboratory measurements. Remote sensing IR observations and polarimetry are also discussed. For both gas and dust, we discuss what instruments the Rosetta spacecraft and Philae lander will bring to bear to improve our understanding of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as “ground-truth” for our previous comprehensive studies. Finally, we summarize some of the initial Rosetta Mission findings.


Comets Origins Taxonomy Rosetta 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Paul Feldman, Dr. Jacques Crovisier, Dr. Neil Dello Russo and Dr. Adam McKay for helpful comments and making data available for our use. Partial support from CNES (the French Space Agency) is acknowledged.


  1. M.F. A’Hearn, R.L. Millis, Abundance correlations among comets. Astron. J. 85, 1528–1537 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. M.F. A’Hearn, R.L. Millis, D.G. Schleicher, D.J. Osip, P.V. Birch, The ensemble properties of comets: results from narrowband photometry of 85 comets, 1976–1992. Icarus 118, 223–270 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. M.F. A’Hearn, M.J.S. Belton, W.A. Delamere, J. Kissel, K.P. Klaasen, L.A. McFadden, K.J. Meech, H.J. Melosh, P.H. Schultz, J.M. Sunshine, P.C. Thomas, J. Veverka, D.K. Yeomans, M.W. Baca, I. Busko, C.J. Crockett, S.M. Collins, M. Desnoyer, C.A. Eberhardy, C.M. Ernst, T.L. Farnham, L. Feaga, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S.I. Ipatov, J.-Y. Li, D. Lindler, C.M. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, W.M. Owen, J.E. Richardson, D.D. Wellnitz, R.L. White, Deep impact: excavating comet Tempel 1. Science 310, 258–264 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. M.F. A’Hearn, M.J.S. Belton, W.A. Delamere, L.M. Feaga, D. Hampton, J. Kissel, K.P. Klaasen, L.A. McFadden, K.J. Meech, H.J. Melosh, P.H. Schultz, J.M. Sunshine, P.C. Thomas, J. Veverka, D.D. Wellnitz, D.K. Yeomans, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, T.J. Bowling, B.T. Carcich, S.M. Collins, T.L. Farnham, O. Groussin, B. Hermalyn, M.S. Kelley, M.S. Kelley, J.-Y. Li, D.J. Lindler, C.M. Lisse, S.A. McLaughlin, F. Merlin, S. Protopapa, J.E. Richardson, J.L. Williams, EPOXI at comet Hartley 2. Science 332, 1396–1400 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, A. Bar-Nun, J.J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, P. Bochsler, C. Briois, U. Calmonte, M. Combi, J. De Keyser, P. Eberhardt, B. Fiethe, S. Fuselier, S. Gasc, T.I. Gombosi, K.C. Hansen, M. Hässig, A. Jäckel, E. Kopp, A. Korth, L. LeRoy, U. Mall, B. Marty, O. Mousis, E. Neefs, T. Owen, H. Rème, M. Rubin, T. Sémon, C.-Y. Tzou, H. Waite, P. Wurz, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a Jupiter family comet with a high D/H ratio. Science 347, A387 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. C. Arpigny, Relative abundances of the heavy elements in comet Ikeya-Seki (1965 VIII), in Liege International Astrophysical Colloquia, ed. by A. Boury, N. Grevesse, L. Remy-Battiau (1979), pp. 189–197 Google Scholar
  7. C. Arpigny, E. Jehin, J. Manfroid, D. Hutsemékers, R. Schulz, J.A. Stüwe, J.-M. Zucconi, I. Ilyin, “Anomalous” nitrogen isotope ratio in comets. Science 301, 1522–1524 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. H. Balsiger, K. Altwegg, J. Geiss, D/H and 18O/16O ratio in the hydronium ion and in neutral water from in situ ion measurements in comet 1P/Halley. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 5827–5834 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. H. Balsiger, K. Altwegg, P. Bochsler, P. Eberhardt, J. Fischer, S. Graf, A. Jäckel, E. Kopp, U. Langer, M. Mildner, J. Müller, T. Riesen, M. Rubin, S. Scherer, P. Wurz, S. Wüthrich, E. Arijs, S. Delanoye, J. de Keyser, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, H. Rème, C. Aoustin, C. Mazelle, J.-L. Médale, J.A. Sauvaud, J.-J. Berthelier, J.-L. Bertaux, L. Duvet, J.-M. Illiano, S.A. Fuselier, A.G. Ghielmetti, T. Magoncelli, E.G. Shelley, A. Korth, K. Heerlein, H. Lauche, S. Livi, A. Loose, U. Mall, B. Wilken, F. Gliem, B. Fiethe, T.I. Gombosi, B. Block, G.R. Carignan, L.A. Fisk, J.H. Waite, D.T. Young, H. Wollnik, Rosina-Rosetta orbiter spectrometer for ion and neutral analysis. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 745–801 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. E. Beer, M. Podolak, D. Prialnik, The contribution of icy grains to the activity of comets. I. Grains lifetime and distribution. Icarus 180, 473–486 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. E. Beer, D. Prialnik, M. Podolak, The contribution of grains to the activity of comets. II. The brightness of the coma. Icarus 195, 340–347 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. E. Beer, D.H. Wooden, R. Schulz, The grain evolution model for icy grains ejected from 9P/Tempel 1 by Deep Impact, in Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space, Time and Wavelengths, ed. by H.U. Kaüfl, C. Sterken (Springer, Berlin, 2009), pp. 59–67 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. N. Biver, D. Bockel’ee-Morvan, P. Colom, J. Crovisier, J.K. Davies, W.R.F. Dent, D. Despois, E. Gerard, E. Lellouch, H. Rauer, R. Moreno, G. Paubert, Evolution of the outgassing of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) from radio observations. Science 275, 1915–1918 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, P. Colom, J. Crovisier, F. Henry, E. Lellouch, A. Winnberg, L.E.B. Johansson, M. Gunnarsson, H. Rickman, F. Rantakyrö, J.K. Davies, W.R.F. Dent, G. Paubert, R. Moreno, J. Wink, D. Despois, D.J. Benford, M. Gardner, D.C. Lis, D. Mehringer, T.G. Phillips, H. Rauer, The 1995–2002 long-term monitoring of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) at radio wavelength. Earth Moon Planets 90, 5–14 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. G.A. Blake, C. Qi, M.R. Hogerheijde, M.A. Gurwell, D.O. Muhleman, Sublimation from icy jets as a probe of the interstellar volatile content of comets. Nature 398, 213–216 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D. Bockelée-Morvan, An overview of comet composition, in IAU Symposium 280, ed. by J. Cernicharo, R. Bachiller (2011), pp. 261–274 Google Scholar
  17. D. Bockelée-Morvan, D.C. Lis, J.E. Wink, D. Despois, J. Crovisier, R. Bachiller, D.J. Benford, N. Biver, P. Colom, J.K. Davies, E. Gérard, B. Germain, M. Houde, D. Mehringer, R. Moreno, G. Paubert, T.G. Phillips, H. Rauer, New molecules found in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Investigating the link between cometary and interstellar material. Astron. Astrophys. 353, 1101–1114 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, M.J. Mumma, H.A. Weaver, The composition of cometary volatiles, in Comets II, ed. by M.C. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), p. 391 Google Scholar
  19. J. Boissier, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, J. Crovisier, D. Despois, B.G. Marsden, R. Moreno, Interferometric imaging of the sulfur-bearing molecules H2S, SO, and CS in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Astron. Astrophys. 475, 1131–1144 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. J. Boissier, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, P. Colom, J. Crovisier, R. Moreno, V. Zakharov, O. Groussin, L. Jorda, D.C. Lis, Gas and dust productions of comet 103P/Hartley 2 from millimetre observations: interpreting rotation-induced time variations. Icarus 228, 197–216 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. B.P. Bonev, M.J. Mumma, Y.L. Radeva, M.A. DiSanti, E.L. Gibb, G.L. Villanueva, The peculiar volatile composition of comet 8P/Tuttle: a contact binary of chemically distinct cometesimals? Astrophys. J. Lett. 680, L61–L64 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. B.P. Bonev, G.L. Villanueva, L. Paganini, M.A. DiSanti, E.L. Gibb, J.V. Keane, K.J. Meech, M.J. Mumma, Evidence for two modes of water release in comet 103P/Hartley 2: distributions of column density, rotational temperature, and ortho-para ratio. Icarus 222, 740–751 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. B.P. Bonev, M.A. DiSanti, G.L. Villanueva, E.L. Gibb, L. Paganini, M.J. Mumma, The inner coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) at 0.53 AU and 0.35 AU from the Sun. Astrophys. J. Lett. 796, L6 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. D. Brownlee, D. Joswiaka, G. Matrajt, Overview of the rocky component of Wild 2 comet samples: insight into the early solar system, relationship with meteoritic materials and the differences between comets and asteroids. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 47, 453–470 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. F. Capaccioni, A. Coradini, G. Filacchione, S. Erard, G. Arnold, P. Drossart, M.C. De Sanctis, D. Bockelee-Morvan, M.T. Capria, F. Tosi, C. Leyrat, B. Schmitt, E. Quirico, P. Cerroni, V. Mennella, A. Raponi, M. Ciarniello, T. McCord, L. Moroz, E. Palomba, E. Ammannito, M.A. Barucci, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, J.P. Bibring, A. Blanco, M. Blecka, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, T. Encrenaz, C. Federico, U. Fink, S. Fonti, W.H. Ip, P. Irwin, R. Jaumann, E. Kuehrt, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, S. Mottola, V. Orofino, P. Palumbo, G. Piccioni, U. Schade, F. Taylor, D. Tiphene, G.P. Tozzi, P. Beck, N. Biver, L. Bonal, J.-P. Combe, D. Despan, E. Flamini, S. Fornasier, A. Frigeri, D. Grassi, M. Gudipati, A. Longobardo, K. Markus, F. Merlin, R. Orosei, G. Rinaldi, K. Stephan, M. Cartacci, A. Cicchetti, S. Giuppi, Y. Hello, F. Henry, S. Jacquinod, R. Noschese, G. Peter, R. Politi, J.M. Reess, A. Semery, The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta. Science 347, 628 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. M.T. Capria, G. Cremonese, A. Bhardwaj, M.C. De Sanctis, O (1S) and O (1D) emission lines in the spectrum of 153P/2002 C1 (Ikeya-Zhang). Astron. Astrophys. 442, 1121–1126 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. M.T. Capria, G. Cremonese, A. Bhardwaj, M.C. De Sanctis, E. Mazzotta Epifani, Oxygen emission lines in the high resolution spectra of 9P/Tempel 1 following the Deep Impact event. Astron. Astrophys. 479, 257–263 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. A.L. Cochran, Another look at abundance correlations among comets. Astron. J. 93, 231–238 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. A.L. Cochran, Atomic oxygen in the comae of comets. Icarus 198, 181–188 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. A.L. Cochran, W.D. Cochran, Observations of O (1S) and O (1D) in spectra of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). Icarus 154, 381–390 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. A.L. Cochran, E.S. Barker, C.L. Gray, Thirty years of cometary spectroscopy from McDonald Observatory. Icarus 218, 144–168 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. A.D. Code, T.E. Houck, C.F. Lillie, Ultraviolet observations of comets, in Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2) (1972), p. 109 Google Scholar
  33. L. Colangeli, J.J. Lopez-Moreno, P. Palumbo, J. Rodriguez, M. Cosi, V. Della Corte, F. Esposito, M. Fulle, M. Herranz, J.M. Jeronimo, A. Lopez-Jimenez, E.M. Epifani, R. Morales, F. Moreno, E. Palomba, A. Rotundi, The Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator (GIADA) experiment for the Rosetta Mission: design, performances and first results. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 803–821 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. P. Colom, J. Crovisier, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, Observations of the 18-cm lines of OH in comets with the Nançay radio telescope, in EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011 (2011), p. 837 Google Scholar
  35. M.R. Combi, Z. Boyd, Y. Lee, T.S. Patel, J.-L. Bertaux, E. Quémerais, J.T.T. Mäkinen, SOHO/SWAN observations of comets with small perihelia: C/2002 V1 (NEAT), C/2002 X5 (Kudo-Fujikawa), 2006 P1 (McNaught) and 96P/Machholz 1. Icarus 216, 449–461 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. M.R. Combi, N. Fougere, J.T.T. Mäkinen, J.-L. Bertaux, E. Quémerais, S. Ferron, Unusual water production activity of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): outbursts and continuous fragmentation. Astrophys. J. Lett. 788, L7 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. A. Coradini, F. Capaccioni, P. Drossart, G. Arnold, E. Ammannito, F. Angrilli, A. Barucci, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, G. Bianchini, J.P. Bibring, M. Blecka, D. Bockelee-Morvan, M.T. Capria, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, P. Cerroni, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, M.C. De Sanctis, E.T. Encrenaz, S. Erard, C. Federico, G. Filacchione, U. Fink, S. Fonti, V. Formisano, W.H. Ip, R. Jaumann, E. Kuehrt, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, T. McCord, V. Mennella, S. Mottola, G. Neukum, P. Palumbo, G. Piccioni, H. Rauer, B. Saggin, B. Schmitt, D. Tiphene, G. Tozzi, VIRTIS: an imaging spectrometer for the Rosetta Mission. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 529–559 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. M.A. Cordiner, A.J. Remijan, J. Boissier, S.N. Milam, M.J. Mumma, S.B. Charnley, L. Paganini, G. Villanueva, D. Bockelée-Morvan, Y.-J. Kuan, Y.-L. Chuang, D.C. Lis, N. Biver, J. Crovisier, D. Minniti, I.M. Coulson, Mapping the release of volatiles in the inner comae of comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Astrophys. J. Lett. 792, L2 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. H. Cottin, M.-C. Gazeau, Y. Benilan, F. Raulin, Origin of cometary extended sources from degradation of refractory organics on grains: polyoxymethylene as formaldehyde parent molecule. Icarus 167, 397–416 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. J. Crovisier, P. Colom, E. Gérard, D. Bockelée-Morvan, G. Bourgois, Observations at Nançay of the OH 18-cm lines in comets. The data base. Observations made from 1982 to 1999. Astron. Astrophys. 393, 1053–1064 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. J. Crovisier, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, P. Colom, D. Despois, D.C. Lis, Ethylene glycol in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Astron. Astrophys. 418, L35–L38 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. J. Crovisier, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Boissier, P. Colom, D.C. Lis, The chemical diversity of comets: synergies between space exploration and ground-based radio observations. Earth Moon Planets 105, 267–272 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. G.W. Curtis, Daylight observations of the 1965 F comet at the Sacramento Peak Observatory. Astron. J. 71, 194–196 (1966) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. A.C. Danks, D.L. Lambert, C. Arpigny, The 12C/13C ratio in comet Kohoutek (1973f). Astrophys. J. Lett. 194, 745–751 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. J.K. Davies, T.L. Roush, D.P. Cruikshank, M.J. Bartholomew, T.R. Geballe, T. Owen, C. de Bergh, The detection of water ice in comet Hale-Bopp. Icarus 127, 238–245 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. P. Deb Roy, H.S. Das, B.J. Medhi, Imaging polarimetry of comet C/2012 L2. Icarus 245, 241–246 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. A. Decock, E. Jehin, D. Hutsemékers, J. Manfroid, Forbidden oxygen lines in comets at various heliocentric distances. Astron. Astrophys. 555, A34 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. A. Decock, E. Jehin, P. Rousselot, D. Hutsemékers, J. Manfroid, S. Raghuram, A. Bhardwaj, B. Hubert, Forbidden oxygen lines at various nucleocentric distances in comets. Astron. Astrophys. 573, A1 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. N. Dello Russo, M.J. Mumma, M.A. DiSanti, K. Magee-Sauer, E.L. Gibb, B.P. Bonev, I.S. McLean, L.-H. Xu, A high-resolution infrared spectral survey of Comet C/1999 H1 Lee. Icarus 184, 255–276 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.04.020. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. N. Dello Russo, R.J. Vervack, H.A. Weaver, C.M. Lisse, H. Kawakita, H. Kobayashi, A.L. Cochran, W.M. Harris, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, J. Crovisier, A.J. McKay, A high-resolution infrared spectral survey of 103P/Hartley 2 on the night of the EPOXI closest approach. Icarus 222, 707–722 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. N. Dello Russo, R. Vervack, H. Weaver, C. Lisse, H. Kawakita, H. Kobayashi, A. McKay, A. Cochran, W. Harris, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, E. Jehin, M. DiSanti, The evolving chemical composition of C/2012 S1 (ISON) as it approached the Sun, in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014, Helsinki, Finland (2014a) Google Scholar
  52. N. Dello Russo, R.J. Vervack, H. Kawakita, H. Kobayashi, H.A. Weaver, W.M. Harris, A. Cochran, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, The volatile composition of 81P/Wild 2 from ground-based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. Icarus 238, 125–136 (2014b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. M.A. DiSanti, B.P. Bonev, G.L. Villanueva, M.J. Mumma, Highly depleted ethane and mildly depleted methanol in comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner: application of a new empirical \(\nu_{2}\)-band model for CH3OH near 50 K. Astrophys. J. Lett. 763, 1 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. M. DiSanti, B. Bonev, E. Gibb, G. Villanueva, L. Paganini, M. Mumma, J. Keane, K. Meech, G. Blake, A. McKay, The chemical composition of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) between 1.2 AU and 0.35 AU from the Sun, in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014, Helsinki, Finland (2014a) Google Scholar
  55. M.A. DiSanti, G.L. Villanueva, L. Paganini, B.P. Bonev, J.V. Keane, K.J. Meech, M.J. Mumma, Pre- and post-perihelion observations of C/2009 P1 (Garradd): evidence for an oxygen-rich heritage? Icarus 228, 167–180 (2014b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. J. Dufay, P. Swings, C. Fehrenbach, Spectrographic observations of comet Ikeya-Seki (1965f). Astrophys. J. Lett. 142, 1698 (1965) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. P. Eberhardt, Comet Halley’s gas composition and extended sources: results from the neutral mass spectrometer on Giotto. Space Sci. Rev. 90, 45–52 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. P. Eberhardt, M. Reber, D. Krankowsky, R.R. Hodges, The D/H and 18O/16O ratios in water from comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 302, 301–316 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. P. Ehrenfreund, H.J. Fraser, J. Blum, J.H.E. Cartwright, J.M. García-Ruiz, E. Hadamcik, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, S. Price, F. Prodi, A. Sarkissian, Physics and chemistry of icy particles in the universe: answers from microgravity. Planet. Space Sci. 51, 473–494 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. J. Elsila, D. Glavin, J. Dworkin, Cometary glycine detected in samples returned by Stardust. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 44, 1323–1330 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. P.D. Feldman, Spectroscopy of comets with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite. Phys. Scr. T 119, 7–12 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. P.D. Feldman, A.L. Cochran, M.R. Combi, Spectroscopic investigations of fragment species in the coma, in Comets II, ed. by M.C. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 425–447 Google Scholar
  63. P.D. Feldman, R.E. Lupu, S.R. McCandliss, H.A. Weaver, The far-ultraviolet spectral signatures of formaldehyde and carbon dioxide in comets. Astrophys. J. Lett. 699, 1104–1112 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Y.R. Fernández, C.M. Lisse, M.S. Kelley, N. Dello Russo, A.T. Tokunaga, C.E. Woodward, D.H. Wooden, Near-infrared light curve of comet 9P/Tempel 1 during Deep Impact. Icarus 187, 220–227 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. M.C. Festou, 18 years of systematic UV studies of comets with IUE, in Ultraviolet Astrophysics Beyond the IUE Final Archive, ed. by W. Wamsteker, R. Gonzalez Riestra, B. Harris (1998), pp. 45–51 Google Scholar
  66. M.C. Festou, P.D. Feldman, The forbidden oxygen lines in comets. Astron. Astrophys. 103, 154–159 (1981) ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. J.-H. Fillion, M. Bertin, A. Lekic, A. Moudens, L. Philippe, X. Michaut, Understanding the relationship between gas and ice: experimental investigations on ortho-para ratios, in European Conference on Laboratory Astrophysics, ed. by C. Stehlè, C. Joblin, L. d’Hendecourt (2012), pp. 307–314 Google Scholar
  68. U. Fink, A taxonomic survey of comet composition 1985–2004 using CCD spectroscopy. Icarus 201, 311–334 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. U. Fink, M.D. Hicks, A survey of 39 comets using CCD spectroscopy. Astrophys. J. Lett. 459, 720–743 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. G. Flynn, Organic grain coatings in primitive interplanetary dust: a timescale for formation of Solar System organic matter, in Workshop on Formation of the First Solids in the Solar System, Kauai, Hawaii (2011), p. 9143. LPI Contrib. 1639 Google Scholar
  71. G.J. Flynn, L.P. Keller, M. Feser, S. Wirick, C. Jacobsen, The origin of organic matter in the Solar System: evidence from the interplanetary dust particles. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 4791–4806 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. G.J. Flynn, H. Leroux, K. Tomenka, I. Ohnishi, T. Mikouchi, S. Wirick, L.P. Keller, C. Jacobsen, S.A. Sandford, Carbonate in comets: a comparison of comets 1P/Halley, 9P/Tempel 1, and 81P/Wild 2, in Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 39 (2008). Abstract 1979 Google Scholar
  73. G. Flynn, S. Wirick, L.P. Keller, Organic grain coatings in primitive interplanetary dust particles: implications for grain sticking in the solar nebula. Earth Planets Space 65, 1159–1166 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. M. Fries, M.J. Burchell, A. Kearsley, A. Steele, Capture effects in carbonaceous material: a Stardust analogue study. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 44, 1465–1474 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. M. Fulle, A. Levasseur-Regourd, N. McBride, E. Hadamcik, In-situ dust measurements from within the coma of 1P/Halley: first order approximation with a dust dynamical model. Astron. J. 119, 1968–1977 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. R. Furusho, B. Suzuki, N. Yamamoto, H. Kawakita, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, T. Kurakami, Imaging polarimetry and color of the inner coma of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1). Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 51, 367–473 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. R. Furusho, Y. Ikeda, D. Kinoshita, W.-H. Ip, H. Kawakita, T. Kasuga, Y. Sato, H.C. Lin, M.S. Chang, Z.H. Lin, J.-I. Watanabe, Imaging polarimetry of comet 9P/Tempel 1 before and after the Deep Impact. Icarus 190, 454–458 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. E.L. Gibb, B.P. Bonev, G. Villanueva, M.A. DiSanti, M.J. Mumma, Solar fluorescence model of \(\mathrm{CH}_{3}\mathrm{D}\) as applied to comet emission. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 118–124 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2013.05.007. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. A. Gicquel, D. Bockelée-Morvan, V.V. Zakharov, M.S. Kelley, C.E. Woodward, D.H. Wooden, Investigation of dust and water ice in comet 9P/Tempel 1 from Spitzer observations of the Deep Impact event. Astron. Astrophys. 542, A119 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. F. Goesmann, H. Rosenbauer, R. Roll, C. Szopa, F. Raulin, R. Sternberg, G. Israel, U. Meierhenrich, W. Thiemann, G. Munoz-Caro, COSAC, the cometary sampling and composition experiment on Philae. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 257–280 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. S.F. Green, J.K. Davies, T.R. Geballe, T. Brooke, A.T. Tokunaga, A strong 3.4 micron emission feature in comet Austin 1989c1, in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1991, ed. by A.W. Harris, E. Bowell (1992), pp. 211–214 Google Scholar
  82. J.M. Greenberg, J.I. Hage, From interstellar dust to comets—a unification of observational constraints. Astrophys. J. Lett. 361, 260–274 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. S. Gulkis, M. Frerking, J. Crovisier, G. Beaudin, P. Hartogh, P. Encrenaz, T. Koch, C. Kahn, Y. Salinas, R. Nowicki, R. Irigoyen, M. Janssen, P. Stek, M. Hofstadter, M. Allen, C. Backus, L. Kamp, C. Jarchow, E. Steinmetz, A. Deschamps, J. Krieg, M. Gheudin, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, T. Encrenaz, D. Despois, W. Ip, E. Lellouch, I. Mann, D. Muhleman, H. Rauer, P. Schloerb, T. Spilker, MIRO: Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 561–597 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. S. Gulkis, M. Allen, P. von Allmen, G. Beaudin, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, M. Choukroun, J. Crovisier, B.J.R. Davidsson, P. Encrenaz, T. Encrenaz, M. Frerking, P. Hartogh, M. Hofstadter, W.-H. Ip, M. Janssen, C. Jarchow, S. Keihm, S. Lee, E. Lellouch, C. Leyrat, L. Rezac, F.P. Schloerb, T. Spilker, Subsurface properties and early activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Science 347, 709 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. E. Hadamcik, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, Dust coma of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR): imaging polarimetry during nucleus disruption. Icarus 166, 188–194 (2003a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. E. Hadamcik, A. Levasseur-Regourd, Imaging polarimetry of cometary dust: different comets and phase angles. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 79–80, 661–678 (2003b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. E. Hadamcik, A. Levasseur-Regourd, Optical properties of dust from Jupiter family comets. Planet. Space Sci. 57, 1118–1132 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. E. Hadamcik, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, V. Leroi, D. Bardin, Imaging polarimetry of the dust coma of Comet Tempel 1 before and after Deep Impact at Haute-Provence Observatory. Icarus 190, 459–468 (2007a). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.05.010. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, F.J.M. Rietmeijer, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, H.G.M. Hill, J.M. Karner, J.A. Nuth, Light scattering by fluffy Mg–Fe–SiO and C mixtures as cometary analogs (PROGRA2 experiment). Icarus 190, 660–671 (2007b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. E. Hadamcik, A.K. Sen, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, R. Gupta, J. Lasue, R. Botet, Dust in comet 103P/Hartley 2 coma during EPOXI mission. Icarus 222, 774–785 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. E. Hadamcik, J.-B. Renard, A. Buch, N. Carrasco, N. Johnson, J. Nuth, Linear polarization of light scattered by cometary analogs: new samples, in Asteroids, Comets and Meteors 2014, Helsinki, Finland (2014) Google Scholar
  92. M.S. Hanner, On the detectability of icy grains in the comae of comets. Icarus 47, 342–350 (1981) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. M.S. Hanner, The silicate material in comets. Space Sci. Rev. 90, 99–108 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. M.S. Hanner, J.P. Bradley, Composition and mineralogy of cometary dust, in Comets II, ed. by M.C. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 555–564 Google Scholar
  95. D.E. Harker, D.H. Wooden, C.E. Woodward, C. Lisse, Grain properties of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Astrophys. J. Lett. 580, 579–597 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. D.E. Harker, D.H. Wooden, C.E. Woodward, C. Lisse, Erratum: grain properties of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) (Ap.J., 580, 579 [2002]). Astrophys. J. Lett. 615, 1081 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. D.E. Harker, C.E. Woodward, D. Wooden, The dust grains from 9P/Tempel 1 before and after the encounter with Deep Impact. Science 310, 278–280 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. D.E. Harker, C.E. Woodward, D.H. Wooden, R.S. Fisher, C.A. Trujillo, Gemini-N mid-IR observations of the dust properties of the ejecta excavated from comet 9P/Tempel 1 during Deep Impact. Icarus 190, 432–453 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. M. Hässig, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, A. Bar-Nun, J.J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, P. Bochsler, C. Briois, U. Calmonte, M. Combi, J. De Keyser, P. Eberhardt, B. Fiethe, S.A. Fuselier, M. Galand, S. Gasc, T.I. Gombosi, K.C. Hansen, A. Jäckel, H.U. Keller, E. Kopp, A. Korth, E. Kührt, L. Le Roy, U. Mall, B. Marty, O. Mousis, E. Neefs, T. Owen, H. Rème, M. Rubin, T. Sémon, C. Tornow, C.-Y. Tzou, J.H. Waite, P. Wurz, Time variability and heterogeneity in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Science 347, 276 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. T.L. Hayward, M.S. Hanner, Z. Sekanina, Thermal infrared imaging and spectroscopy of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1). Astrophys. J. Lett. 538, 428–455 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. D.C. Hines, G. Videen, E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, V.G. Kaydash, M. Knight, M.L. Sitko, C.M. Lisse, M. Mutchler, D. Hammer, P.A. Yanamandra-Fisher, Hubble Space Telescope pre-perihelion ACS/WFC imaging polarimetry of comet ISON (C/2012 S1) at 3.81 AU. Astrophys. J. Lett. 780, L32–L38 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. K.W. Hodapp, G. Aldering, K.J. Meech, A.L. Cochran, P. Antilogus, E. Pécontal, W. Chickering, N. Blanc, Y. Copin, D.K. Lynch, R. Rudy, S. Mazuk, C.C. Venturini, R.C. Puetter, R.B. Perry, Visible and near-infrared spectrophotometry of the Deep Impact ejecta of comet 9P/Tempel 1. Icarus 187, 185–198 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. F. Hörz, R. Bastien, J. Borg, J.P. Bradley, J.C. Bridges, D.E. Brownlee, M.J. Burchell, M. Chi, M.J. Cintala, Z.R. Dai, Z. Djouadi, G. Dominguez, T.E. Economou, S.A.J. Fairey, C. Floss, I.A. Franchi, G.A. Graham, S.F. Green, P. Heck, P. Hoppe, J. Huth, H. Ishii, A.T. Kearsley, J. Kissel, J. Leitner, H. Leroux, K. Marhas, K. Messenger, C.S. Schwandt, T.H. See, C. Snead, F.J. Stadermann, T. Stephan, R. Stroud, N. Teslich, J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez, A.J. Tuzzolino, D. Troadec, P. Tsou, J. Warren, A. Westphal, P. Wozniakiewicz, I. Wright, E. Zinner, Impact features on Stardust: implications for comet 81P/Wild 2 dust. Science 314, 1716 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. E. Jehin, J. Manfroid, H. Kawakita, D. Hutsemékers, M. Weiler, C. Arpigny, A. Cochran, O. Hainaut, H. Rauer, R. Schulz, J.-M. Zucconi, Optical spectroscopy of the B and C fragments of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 at the ESO VLT. LPI Contributions 1405, (2008), p. 8319.
  105. E. Jessberger, Rocky cometary particulates: their elemental, isotopic, and mineralogical ingredients. Space Sci. Rev. 90, 91–97 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. D. Jewitt, K.J. Meech, Cometary grain scattering versus wavelength, or, “What color is comet dust?”. Astrophys. J. Lett. 310, 937–952 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. T.J. Jones, R.D. Gehrz, Infrared imaging polarimetry of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Icarus 143, 338–346 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. D.J. Joswiak, D.E. Brownlee, G. Matrajt, A.J. Westphal, C.J. Snead, Z. Gainsforth, Comprehensive examination of large mineral and rock fragments in Stardust tracks: mineralogy, analogous extraterrestrial materials, and source regions. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 47, 471–524 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. H. Kawakita, M.J. Mumma, Fluorescence excitation models of ammonia and amidogen radical (NH2) in comets: application to comet C/2004 Q2 (Machholz). Astrophys. J. Lett. 727, 91 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. H. Kawakita, J.-i. Watanabe, T. Ootsubo, R. Nakamura, T. Fuse, N. Takato, S. Sasaki, T. Sasaki, Evidence of icy grains in comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) at 3.52 AU. Astrophys. J. Lett. 601, L191–L194 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. H. Kawakita, H. Kobayashi, N. Dello Russo, R.J. Vervack, M. Hashimoto, H.A. Weaver, C.M. Lisse, A.L. Cochran, W.M. Harris, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, J. Crovisier, A.J. McKay, Parent volatiles in comet 103P/Hartley 2 observed by Keck II with NIRSPEC during the 2010 apparition. Icarus 222, 723–733 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. H. Kawakita, N. Dello Russo, R. Vervack Jr., H. Kobayashi, M.A. DiSanti, C. Opitom, E. Jehin, H.A. Weaver, A.L. Cochran, W.M. Harris, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, J. Crovisier, A.J. McKay, J. Manfroid, M. Gillon, Extremely organic-rich coma of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) during its outburst in 2012. Astrophys. J. Lett. 788, 110 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. H.U. Keller, C. Arpigny, C. Barbieri, R.M. Bonnet, S. Cazes, M. Coradini, C.B. Cosmovici, W.A. Delamere, W.F. Huebner, D.W. Hughes, C. Jamar, D. Malaise, H.J. Reitsema, H.U. Schmidt, W.K.H. Schmidt, P. Seige, F.L. Whipple, K. Wilhelm, First Halley multicolour camera imaging results from Giotto. Nature 321, 320–326 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. L.P. Keller, S. Bajt, G.A. Baratta, J. Borg, J.P. Bradley, D.E. Brownlee, H. Busemann, J.R. Brucato, M. Burchell, L. Colangeli, L. D’Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Ferrini, G. Flynn, I.A. Franchi, M. Fries, M.M. Grady, G.A. Graham, F. Grossemy, A. Kearsley, G. Matrajt, K. Nakamura-Messenger, V. Mennella, L. Nittler, M.E. Palumbo, F.J. Stadermann, P. Tsou, A. Rotundi, S.A. Sandford, C. Snead, A. Steele, D. Wooden, M. Zolensky, Infrared spectroscopy of comet 81P/Wild 2 samples returned by Stardust. Science 314, 1728 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. M.S. Kelley, D.H. Wooden, The composition of dust in Jupiter-family comets inferred from infrared spectroscopy. Planet. Space Sci. 57, 1133–1145 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. M.S. Kelley, D.J. Lindler, D. Bodewits, M.F. A’Hearn, C.M. Lisse, L. Kolokolova, J. Kissel, B. Hermalyn, A distribution of large particles in the coma of comet 103P/Hartley 2. Icarus 222, 634–652 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. N.N. Kiselev, K. Jockers, V.K. Rosenbush, F.P. Velichko, T. Bonev, N. Karpov, Anomalous wavelength dependence of polarization of comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner. Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1005–1009 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. N.N. Kiselev, K. Jockers, V.K. Rosenbush, P.P. Korsun, Analysis of polarimetric, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of comet C/1996 Q1 (Tabur). Sol. Syst. Res. 35, 480–495 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. N.N. Kiselev, N. Nikolai, K. Jockers, T. Bonev, CCD imaging polarimetry of comet 2P/Encke. Icarus 168, 385–391 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. N.N. Kiselev, V. Rosenbush, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, L. Kolokolova, Polarimetry of comets, in Polarization of Stars and Planetary Systems, ed. by L. Kolokolova, J. Hough, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014), pp. 379–404 Google Scholar
  121. J. Kissel, D.E. Brownlee, K. Buchler, B.C. Clark, H. Fechtig, E. Grün, K. Hormung, E.B. Igenbergs, E.K. Jessberger, F.R. Krueger, H. Kuczera, J.A.M. McDonnell, G.M. Morfill, J. Rahe, G.H. Schwehm, Z. Sekanina, N.G. Utterback, H.J. Volk, H.A. Zook, Composition of comet Halley dust particles from Giotto observations. Nature 321, 336–337 (1986a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. J. Kissel, R.Z. Sagdeev, J.L. Bertaux, V.N. Angarov, J. Audouze, J.E. Blamont, K. Buckler, E.N. Evlanov, H. Fechtig, M.N. Fomenkova, H. von Hoerner, N.A. Inogamov, V.N. Khromov, W. Knabe, F.R. Krueger, Y. Langevin, V.B. Leonas, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, G.G. Managadz, S.N. Podkolzin, V.D. Shapiro, S.R. Tabaldyev, B.V. Zubkov, Composition of comet Halley dust particles from Vega observations. Nature 321, 280–282 (1986b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. J. Kissel, F.R. Krueger, J. Silén, B.C. Clark, The cometary and interstellar dust analyzer at comet 81P/Wild 2. Science 304, 1774–1776 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. J. Kissel, K. Altwegg, B.C. Clark, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, S. Czempiel, J. Eibl, C. Engrand, H.M. Fehringer, B. Feuerbacher, M. Fomenkova, A. Glasmachers, J.M. Greenberg, E. Grün, G. Haerendel, H. Henkel, M. Hilchenbach, H. von Hoerner, H. Höfner, K. Hornung, E.K. Jessberger, A. Koch, H. Krüger, Y. Langevin, P. Parigger, F. Raulin, F. Rüdenauer, J. Rynö, E.R. Schmid, R. Schulz, J. Silén, W. Steiger, T. Stephan, L. Thirkell, R. Thomas, K. Torkar, N.G. Utterback, K. Varmuza, K.P. Wanczek, W. Werther, H. Zscheeg, COSIMA high resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer for the analysis of cometary dust particles onboard Rosetta. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 823–867 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. M. Kleine, S. Wyckoff, P.A. Wehinger, B.A. Peterson, The carbon isotope abundance ratio in comet Halley. Astrophys. J. Lett. 439, 1021–1033 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. G. Klingelhöfer, J. Brückner, C. D’Uston, R. Gellert, R. Rieder, The Rosetta Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). Space Sci. Rev. 128, 383–396 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. M.M. Knight, K.J. Walsh, M.F. A’Hearn, R.A. Swaters, B.A. Zauderer, N.H. Samarasinha, R. Vázquez, H. Reitsema, Ground-based visible and near-IR observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact encounter. Icarus 187, 199–207 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. H. Kobayashi, H. Kawakita, M.J. Mumma, B.P. Bonev, J.-i. Watanabe, T. Fuse, Organic volatiles in comet 73P-B/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 observed during its outburst: a clue to the formation region of the Jupiter-family comets. Astrophys. J. Lett. 668, L75–L78 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. W. Kofman, A. Herique, J.-P. Goutail, T. Hagfors, I.P. Williams, E. Nielsen, J.-P. Barriot, Y. Barbin, C. Elachi, P. Edenhofer, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, D. Plettemeier, G. Picardi, R. Seu, V. Svedhem, The COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT): a short description of the instrument and of the commissioning stages. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 413–432 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. L. Kolokolova, M.S. Hanner, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, B.A.S. Gustavson, Physical properties of cometary dust from light scattering and thermal emission, in Comets II, ed. by M.C. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 577–604 Google Scholar
  131. L. Kolokolova, H. Kimura, N. Kiselev, V. Rosenbush, Two different evolutionary types of comets proved by polarimetry and infrared properties of their dust. Astron. Astrophys. 463, 1189–1196 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. L. Kolokolova, J. Hough, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, Polarization of Stars and Planetary Systems (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. F.R. Krueger, A. Korth, J. Kissel, The organic matter of comet Halley as inferred by joint gas phase and solid phase analyses. Space Sci. Rev. 56, 167–175 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. L.E. Langland-Shula, G.H. Smith, Comet classification with new methods for gas and dust spectroscopy. Icarus 213, 280–322 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. J. Lasue, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, G. Alcouffe, Cometary dust properties retrieved from polarization observations: application to C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp and 1P/Halley. Icarus 199, 129–144 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. L. Le Roy, G. Briani, C. Briois, H. Cottin, N. Fray, L. Thirkell, G. Poulet, M. Hilchenbach, On the prospective detection of polyoxymethylene in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the COSIMA instrument onboard Rosetta. Planet. Space Sci. 65, 83–92 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. E. Lellouch, J. Crovisier, T. Lim, D. Bockelée-Morvan, K. Leech, M.S. Hanner, B. Altieri, B. Schmitt, F. Trotta, H.U. Keller, Evidence for water ice and estimate of dust production rate in comet Hale-Bopp at 2.9 AU from the Sun. Astron. Astrophys. 339, L9–L12 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, J.B. Renard, Evidence of two classes of comets from their polarimetric properties at large phase angles. Astron. Astrophys. 313, 327–333 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, N. McBride, E. Hadamcik, M. Fulle, Similarities between in situ measurements of local dust scattering and dust flux impact data within the coma of 1P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 348, 636–641 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Zolensky, J. Lasue, Dust in cometary comae: present understanding of the structure and composition of dust particles. Planet. Space Sci. 56, 1719–1724 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Y.-M. Lim, K.-W. Min, P.D. Feldman, W. Han, J. Edelstein, Far-ultraviolet observations of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) with FIMS/SPEAR. Astrophys. J. Lett. 781, 80 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. M. Lippi, G.L. Villanueva, M.A. DiSanti, H. Böhnhardt, M.J. Mumma, B.P. Bonev, D. Prialnik, A new model for the \(\nu_{1}\) vibrational band of HCN in cometary comae, with application to three comets. Astron. Astrophys. 551, A51 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth, A. Li, D. Joswiak, Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546. Icarus 187, 69–86 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. X. Liu, D.E. Shemansky, J.T. Hallett, H.A. Weaver, Extreme non-LTE H2 in comets C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR) and C/2001 A2 (LINEAR). Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 169, 458–471 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. R.E. Lupu, P.D. Feldman, H.A. Weaver, G.-P. Tozzi, The fourth positive system of carbon monoxide in the Hubble Space Telescope spectra of comets. Astrophys. J. Lett. 670, 1473–1484 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. J. Manfroid, E. Jehin, D. Hutsemékers, A. Cochran, J.-M. Zucconi, C. Arpigny, R. Schulz, J.A. Stüwe, Isotopic abundance of nitrogen and carbon in distant comets. Astron. Astrophys. 432, L5–L8 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. J. Manfroid, E. Jehin, D. Hutsemékers, A. Cochran, J.-M. Zucconi, C. Arpigny, R. Schulz, J. Stüwe, I. Liyin, The CN isotopic ratios in comets. Astron. Astrophys. 503, 613–624 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. G. Matrajt, M. Ito, S. Wirick, S. Messenger, D.E. Brownlee, D. Joswiak, G. Flynn, S. Sandford, C. Snead, A. Westphal, Carbon investigation of two Stardust particles: a TEM, NanoSIMS, and XANES study. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 43, 315–334 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. J.E.P. Matzel, H.A. Ishii, D. Joswiak, I.D. Hutcheon, J.P. Bradley, D. Brownlee, P.K. Weber, N. Teslich, G. Matrajt, K.D. McKeegan, G.J. MacPherson, Constraints on the formation age of cometary material from the NASA Stardust Mission. Science 328, 483 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. A.J. McKay, N.J. Chanover, J.P. Morgenthaler, A.L. Cochran, W.M. Harris, N.D. Russo, Forbidden oxygen lines in comets C/2006 W3 Christensen and C/2007 Q3 Siding Spring at large heliocentric distance: implications for the sublimation of volatile ices. Icarus 220, 277–285 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. A.J. McKay, N.J. Chanoveer, J.P. Morgenthaler, A.L. Cochran, W.M. Harris, N. Dello Russo, Observations of the forbidden oxygen lines in DIXI target comet 103P/Hartley. Icarus 222, 684–690 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. A. McKay, A. Cochran, N. Dello Russo, H. Weaver, R. Vervack, W. Harris, H. Kawakita, M. DiSanti, N. Chanover, Z. Tsvetanov, Evolution of fragment-species production in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from 1.6 AU to 0.4 AU, in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014, Helsinki, Finland (2014) Google Scholar
  153. K.D. McKeegan, J. Aléon, J. Bradley, D. Brownlee, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, M. Chaussidon, S. Fallon, C. Floss, J. Gilmour, M. Gounelle, G. Graham, Y. Guan, P.R. Heck, P. Hoppe, I.D. Hutcheon, J. Huth, H. Ishii, M. Ito, S. Jacobsen, A. Kearsley, L.A. Leshin, M.-C. Liu, A. Lyon, K. Marhas, B. Marty, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, S. Messenger, S. Mostefaoui, S. Mukhopadhyay, K. Nakamura-Messenger, L. Nittler, R. Palma, R.O. Pepin, D.A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, D. Schlutter, C.J. Snead, F. Stadermann, R. Stroud, P. Tsou, A. Westphal, E.D. Young, K. Ziegler, L. Zimmermann, E. Zinner, Isotopic compositions of cometary matter returned by Stardust. Science 314, 1724 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. R. Meier, M.F. A’Hearn, Atomic sulfur in cometary comae based on UV spectra of the S I triplet near 1814 Å. Icarus 125, 164–194 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. G. Moreels, J. Clairemidi, P. Hermine, P. Brechignac, P. Rousselot, Detection of a polycyclic aromatic molecule in comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 282, 643–656 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. J.P. Morgenthaler, W.M. Harris, M.R. Combi, P.D. Feldman, H.A. Weaver, The GALEX comets, in AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts (2009) Google Scholar
  157. J.P. Morgenthaler, W.M. Harris, M.R. Combi, P.D. Feldman, H.A. Weaver, GALEX FUV observations of comet C/2004 Q2 (Machholz): the ionization lifetime of carbon. Astrophys. J. Lett. 726, 8 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. M.J. Mumma, S.B. Charnley, The chemical composition of comets—emerging taxonomies and natal heritage. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49, 471–524 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. M.J. Mumma, H.A. Weaver, H.P. Larson, The ortho-para ratio of water vapor in comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 419–424 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. M.J. Mumma, I.S. McLean, M.A. DiSanti, J.E. Larkin, N. Dello Russo, K. Magee-Sauer, E.E. Becklin, T. Bida, F. Chafee, A.R. Conrad, D.F. Figer, A.M. Gilbert, J.R. Graham, N.A. Levenson, R.E. Novak, D.C. Reuter, H.I. Teplitz, M.K. Wilcox, L.-H. Xu, A survey of organic volatile species in comet C/1999 H1 (Lee) using NIRSPEC at the Keck Observatory. Astrophys. J. Lett. 546, 1183–1193 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. M.J. Mumma, M.A. DiSanti, K. Magee-Sauer, B.P. Bonev, G.L. Villanueva, H. Kawakita, N. Dello Russo, E.L. Gibb, G.A. Blake, J.E. Lyke, R.D. Campbell, J. Aycock, A. Conrad, G.M. Hill, Parent volatiles in comet 9P/Tempel 1: before and after impact. Science 310, 270–274 (2005). doi: 10.1126/science.1119337. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. D. Nakashima, T. Ushikubo, D.J. Joswiak, D.E. Brownlee, G. Matrajt, M.K. Weisberg, M.E. Zolensky, N.T. Kita, Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: a comparison of oxygen isotope systematics between Wild 2 particles and chondritic materials. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 357, 355–365 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. R.L. Newburn, H. Spinrad, Spectrophotometry of 17 comets. I. The emission features. Astron. J. 89, 289–309 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. R.L. Newburn, H. Spinrad, Spectrophotometry of 25 comets: post-Halley updates for 17 comets plus new observations for eight additional comets. Astron. J. 97, 552–569 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. R.C. Ogliore, G.R. Huss, K. Nagashima, A.L. Butterworth, Z. Gainsforth, J. Stodolna, A.J. Westphal, D. Joswiak, T. Tyliszczak, Incorporation of a late-forming chondrule into comet Wild 2. Astrophys. J. Lett. 745, L19 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. T. Ootsubo, H. Kawakita, S. Hamada, H. Kobayashi, M. Yamaguchi, F. Usui, T. Nakagaw, M. Ueno, M. Ishiguro, T. Sekiguchi, J. Watanabe, I. Sakon, T. Shimonishi, T. Onaka, AKARI near-infrared spectroscopic survey for CO2 in 18 comets. Astrophys. J. Lett. 752, 15 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. C. Opitom, E. Jehin, J. Manfroid, D. Hutsemakers, M. Gillon, TRAPPIST monitoring of C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014, Helsinki, Finland (2014) Google Scholar
  168. L. Paganini, M.J. Mumma, H. Boehnhardt, M.A. DiSanti, G.L. Villanueva, B.P. Bonev, M. Lippi, H.U. Käufl, G.A. Blake, Ground-based infrared detections of CO in the centaur-comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 at 6.26 AU from the Sun. Astrophys. J. 766, 100 (2013). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/100. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. L. Paganini, M.A. DiSanti, M.J. Mumma, G.L. Villanueva, B.P. Bonev, J.V. Keane, E.L. Gibb, H. Boehnhardt, K.J. Meech, The unexpectedly bright comet C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) unveiled at near-infrared wavelengths. Astron. J. 147, 15 (2014a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. L. Paganini, M.J. Mumma, G.L. Villanueva, J.V. Keane, G.A. Blake, B.P. Bonev, M.A. DiSanti, E.L. Gibb, K.J. Meech, C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) at IR wavelengths and the variability of CO abundances among Oort Cloud comets. Astrophys. J. Lett. 791, 122 (2014b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. L. Paganini, M.J. Mumma, G.L. Villanueva, M.A. DiSanti, B.P. Bonev, The volatile composition of comet C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) at near-IR wavelengths—Comparisons with results from the Nancay radio observatory and from the Odin, Spitzer, and SOHO space telescopes. Ap. J. (2015, in press) Google Scholar
  172. G.W. Preston, The spectrum of comet Ikeya-Seki (1965f). Astrophys. J. Lett. 147, 718–742 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. S. Protopapa, J.M. Sunshine, L.M. Feaga, M.S.P. Kelley, M.F. A’Hearn, T.L. Farnham, O. Groussin, S. Besse, F. Merlin, J.-Y. Li, Water ice and dust in the innermost coma of comet 103P/Hartley 2. Icarus 238, 191–204 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Y.L. Radeva, M.J. Mumma, G.L. Villanueva, M.F. A’Hearn, A newly developed fluorescence model for C2H6 \(\nu \) 5 and application to cometary spectra acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II. Astrophys. J. Lett. 729, 135 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Y.L. Radeva, M.J. Mumma, G.L. Villanueva, B.P. Bonev, M.A. DiSanti, M.F. A’Hearn, N. Dello Russo, High-resolution infrared spectroscopic measurements of comet 2P/Encke: unusual organic composition and low rotational temperatures. Icarus 223, 298–307 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. W.T. Reach, M.S. Kelley, J. Vaubaillon, Survey of cometary CO2, CO, and particulate emissions using the Spitzer Space Telescope. Icarus 226, 777–797 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. J.B. Renard, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, A. Dolfus, Polarimetric CCD imaging of comet Levy. Ann. Geophys. 10, 288–292 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  178. W. Riedler, K. Torkar, H. Jeszenszky, J. Romstedt, H.S.C. Alleyne, H. Arends, W. Barth, J.V.D. Biezen, B. Butler, P. Ehrenfreund, M. Fehringer, G. Fremuth, J. Gavira, O. Havnes, E.K. Jessberger, R. Kassing, W. Klöck, C. Koeberl, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Maurette, F. Rüdenauer, R. Schmidt, G. Stangl, M. Steller, I. Weber, MIDAS—the Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System for the Rosetta Mission. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 869–904 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. M. Rubin, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, A. Bar-Nun, J.-J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, P. Bochsler, C. Briois, U. Calmonte, M. Combi, J. De Keyser, F. Dhooghe, P. Eberhardt, B. Fiethe, S.A. Fuselier, S. Gasc, T.I. Gombosi, K.C. Hansen, M. Hässig, A. Jäckel, E. Kopp, A. Korth, L. Le Roy, U. Mall, B. Marty, O. Mousis, T. Owen, H. Rème, T. Sémon, C.-Y. Tzou, J.H. Waite, P. Wurz, Molecular nitrogen in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko indicates a low formation temperature. Science 348, 232–235 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. S.A. Sandford, J. Aléon, C.M.O. Alexander, T. Araki, S. Bajt, G.A. Baratta, J. Borg, J.P. Bradley, D.E. Brownlee, J.R. Brucato, M.J. Burchell, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, S.J. Clemett, G. Cody, L. Colangeli, G. Cooper, L. D’Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, J.P. Dworkin, G. Ferrini, H. Fleckenstein, G.J. Flynn, I.A. Franchi, M. Fries, M.K. Gilles, D.P. Glavin, M. Gounelle, F. Grossemy, C. Jacobsen, L.P. Keller, A.L.D. Kilcoyne, J. Leitner, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, V. Mennella, S. Mostefaoui, L.R. Nittler, M.E. Palumbo, D.A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, A. Rotundi, C.J. Snead, M.K. Spencer, F.J. Stadermann, A. Steele, T. Stephan, P. Tsou, T. Tyliszczak, A.J. Westphal, S. Wirick, B. Wopenka, H. Yabuta, R.N. Zare, M.E. Zolensky, Organics captured from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft. Science 314, 1720 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. D.G. Schleicher, The extremely anomalous molecular abundances of comet 96P/Machholz 1 from narrowband photometry. Astron. J. 136, 2204–2213 (2008) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. D.G. Schleicher, A.N. Bair, The composition of the interior of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3: results from narrowband photometry of multiple components. Astron. J. 141, 177 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. D.G. Schleicher, A.N. Bair, Compositional taxonomy for comets: background and motivation, in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014, Helsinki, Finland (2014) Google Scholar
  184. D.G. Schleicher, T.L. Farnham, Photometry and imaging of the coma with narrowband filters, in Comets II, ed. by M.C. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 449–469 Google Scholar
  185. D.G. Schleicher, K.L. Barnes, N.F. Baugh, Photometry and imaging results for comet 9P/Tempel 1 and Deep Impact: gas production rates, postimpact light curves, and ejecta plume morphology. Astron. J. 131, 1130–1137 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. P.H. Schultz, B. Hermalyn, J. Veverka, The Deep Impact crater on 9P/Tempel 1 from Stardust-NExT. Icarus 222, 502–515 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. R. Schulz, A. Owens, P.M. Rodriguez-Pascual, D. Lumb, C. Erd, J.A. Stüwe, Detection of water ice grains after the Deep Impact onto comet 9P/Tempel 1. Astron. Astrophys. 448, L53–L56 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. R. Schulz, M. Hilchenbach, Y. Langevin, J. Kissel, J. Silen, C. Briois, C. Engrand, K. Hornung, D. Baklouti, A. Bardyn, H. Cottin, H. Fischer, N. Fray, M. Godard, H. Lehto, L. Le Roy, S. Merouane, F.-R. Orthous-Daunay, J. Paquette, J. Rynö, S. Siljeström, O. Stenzel, L. Thirkell, K. Varmuza, B. Zaprudin, Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sheds dust coat accumulated over the past four years. Nature 518, 216–218 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Y. Shinnaka, H. Kawakita, H. Kobayashi, E. Jehin, J. Manfroid, D. Hutsemékers, C. Arpigny, Ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of ammonia in 15 comets: OPRs of ammonia versus 14N/15N ratios in CN. Astrophys. J. Lett. 729, 81 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. M.L. Sitko, D.K. Lynch, R.W. Russell, M.S. Hanner, 3–14 micron spectroscopy of comets C/2002 Q4 (Hoenig), C/2002 V1 (NEAT), C/2002 X5 (Kudo-Fujikawa), C/2002 Y1 (Juels-Holvorcem), and 69P/Taylor and the relationships among grain temperature, silicate band strength, and structure among comet families. Astrophys. J. Lett. 612, 576–587 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. C.D. Slaughter, The emission spectrum of comet Ikeya-Seki 1965-f at perihelion passage. Astron. J. 74, 929–943 (1969) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. M.K. Spencer, R.N. Zare, Comment on “Organics captured from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft”. Science 317, 1680 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. S.A. Stern, D.C. Slater, J. Scherrer, J. Stone, M. Versteeg, M.F. A’Hearn, J.L. Bertaux, P.D. Feldman, M.C. Festou, J.W. Parker, O.H.W. Siegmund, Alice: the Rosetta ultraviolet imaging spectrograph. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 507–527 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. S. Sugita, T. Ootsubo, T. Kadono, M. Honda, S. Sako, T. Miyata, I. Sakon, T. Yamashita, H. Kawakita, H. Fujiwara, T. Fujiyoshi, N. Takato, T. Fuse, J. Watanabe, R. Furusho, S. Hasegawa, T. Kasuga, T. Sekiguchi, D. Kinoshita, K.J. Meech, D.H. Wooden, W.H. Ip, M.F. A’Hearn, Subaru telescope observations of deep impact. Science 310, 274–278 (2005). doi: 10.1126/science.1119091. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. S. Sugita, T. Kadono, S. Sako, T. Ootsubo, M. Honda, H. Kawakita, R. Furusho, J. Watanabe, Mid-IR observations of Deep Impact reveal the primordial origin of a surface of comet 9P/Tempe1 1, in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2007), p. 1911 Google Scholar
  196. J.M. Sunshine, O. Groussin, P.H. Schultz, M.F. A’Hearn, L.M. Feaga, T.L. Farnham, K.P. Klaasen, The distribution of water ice in the interior of comet Tempel 1. Icarus 190, 284–294 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. A.D. Thackeray, M.W. Feast, B. Warner, Daytime spectra of comet Ikeya-Seki near perihelion. Astrophys. J. Lett. 143, 276–279 (1966) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. A.J. Tuzzolino, T.E. Economou, B.C. Clark, P. Tsou, D.E. Brownlee, S.F. Green, J.A.M. McDonnell, N. McBride, M.T.S.H. Colwell, Dust measurements in the coma of Comet 81P/Wild 2 by the dust flux monitor instrument. Science 304, 1776–1780 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. G.L. Villanueva, M.A. DiSanti, M.J. Mumma, L.-H. Xu, A quantum band model of the \(\nu_{3}\) fundamental of methanol (CH3OH) and its application to fluorescence spectra of comets. Astrophys. J. Lett. 747, 37 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. H.A. Weaver, P.D. Feldman, M.F. A’Hearn, N. Dello Russo, S.A. Stern, The carbon monoxide abundance in comet 103P/Hartley 2 during the EPOXI flyby. Astrophys. J. Lett. 734, L5 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. F.L. Whipple, A comet model: the acceleration of comet Encke. Astrophys. J. Lett. 111, 375–394 (1950) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. D.H. Wooden, Comet grains: their IR emission and their relation to ISM grains. Earth Moon Planets 89, 247–287 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. D.H. Wooden, C.E. Woodward, D.E. Harker, Discovery of crystalline silicates in comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Astrophys. J. Lett. 612, L77–L80 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. C.E. Woodward, T.J. Jones, B. Brown, E.L. Ryan, M. Krejny, L. Kolokolova, M.S. Kelley, D.E. Harker, M.L. Sitko, Dust in comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin). Astron. J. 141, 181–190 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. I.P. Wright, S.J. Barber, G.H. Morgan, A.D. Morse, S. Sheridan, D.J. Andrews, J. Maynard, D. Yau, S.T. Evans, M.R. Leese, J.C. Zarnecki, B.J. Kent, N.R. Waltham, M.S. Whalley, S. Heys, D.L. Drummond, R.L. Edeson, E.C. Sawyer, R.F. Turner, C.T. Pillinger, Ptolemy—an instrument to measure stable isotopic ratios of key volatiles on a cometary nucleus. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 363–381 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. B. Yang, D. Jewitt, S. Bus, Comet 17P/Holmes in outburst: the near-infrared spectrum. Astron. J. 137, 4538–4546 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. B. Yang, J. Keane, K. Keech, T. Owen, R. Wainscoat, Multi-wavelength observations of comet C/20122 L4 (Pan-STARRS). Astrophys. J. Lett. 784, L23–L27 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. M.E. Zolensky, T.J. Zega, H. Yano, S. Wirick, A.J. Westphal, M.K. Weisberg, I. Weber, J.L. Warren, M.A. Velbel, A. Tsuchiyama, P. Tsou, A. Toppani, N. Tomioka, K. Tomeoka, N. Teslich, M. Taheri, J. Susini, R. Stroud, T. Stephan, F.J. Stadermann, C.J. Snead, S.B. Simon, A. Simionovici, T.H. See, F. Robert, F.J.M. Rietmeijer, W. Rao, M.C. Perronnet, D.A. Papanastassiou, K. Okudaira, K. Ohsumi, I. Ohnishi, K. Nakamura-Messenger, T. Nakamura, S. Mostefaoui, T. Mikouchi, A. Meibom, G. Matrajt, M.A. Marcus, H. Leroux, L. Lemelle, L. Le, A. Lanzirotti, F. Langenhorst, A.N. Krot, L.P. Keller, A.T. Kearsley, D. Joswiak, D. Jacob, H. Ishii, R. Harvey, K. Hagiya, L. Grossman, J.N. Grossman, G.A. Graham, M. Gounelle, P. Gillet, M.J. Genge, G. Flynn, T. Ferroir, S. Fallon, D.S. Ebel, Z.R. Dai, P. Cordier, B. Clark, M. Chi, A.L. Butterworth, D.E. Brownlee, J.C. Bridges, S. Brennan, A. Brearley, J.P. Bradley, P. Bleuet, P.A. Bland, R. Bastien, Mineralogy and petrology of comet 81P/Wild 2 nucleus samples. Science 314, 1735 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. M. Zolensky, K. Nakamura-Messenger, F. Rietmeijer, H. Leroux, T. Mikouchi, K. Ohsumi, S. Simon, L. Grossman, T. Stephan, M. Weisberg, M. Velbel, T. Zega, R. Stroud, K. Tomeoka, I. Ohnishi, N. Tomioka, T. Nakamura, G. Matrajt, D. Joswiak, D. Brownlee, F. Langenhorst, A. Krot, A. Kearsley, H. Ishii, G. Graham, Z.R. Dai, M. Chi, J. Bradley, K. Hagiya, M. Gounelle, J. Bridges, Comparing Wild 2 particles to chondrites and IDPs. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 43, 261–272 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. M. Zolensky, D. Frank, L. Le, Olivine and pyroxene compositions in fine-grained chondritic materials, in Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 42 (2011), abstract 1898 Google Scholar
  211. E. Zubko, R. Furusho, K. Kawabata, T. Yamamoto, K. Muinonen, G. Videen, Interpretation of photopolarimetric observations of comet 17P/Holmes. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112, 1848–1863 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, E. Hadamcik, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, Evaluating the carbon depletion found by the Stardust mission in comet 81P/Wild 2. Astron. Astrophys. 544, L8 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita L. Cochran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anny-Chantal Levasseur-Regourd
    • 2
  • Martin Cordiner
    • 3
  • Edith Hadamcik
    • 4
  • Jérémie Lasue
    • 5
  • Adeline Gicquel
    • 3
    • 9
  • David G. Schleicher
    • 6
  • Steven B. Charnley
    • 3
  • Michael J. Mumma
    • 3
  • Lucas Paganini
    • 3
  • Dominique Bockelée-Morvan
    • 7
  • Nicolas Biver
    • 7
  • Yi-Jehng Kuan
    • 8
  1. 1.McDonald ObservatoryThe University of TexasAustinUSA
  2. 2.LATMOSUPMCParisFrance
  3. 3.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  4. 4.LATMOSUPMCGuyancourtFrance
  5. 5.IRAPUPSToulouseFrance
  6. 6.Lowell ObservatoryFlagstaffUSA
  7. 7.Observatoire de ParisLESIAMeudonFrance
  8. 8.National Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  9. 9.MPSGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations